1124 papal election

The 1124 papal election (held 16–21 December) took place after the death of Pope Callixtus II on 13 December 1124 and chose Pope Honorius II as his successor.

Papal election
1124
Dates and location
16–21 December 1124
Elected pope
Lamberto Scannabecchi
Name taken: Honorius II
← 1119
1130 →

BackgroundEdit

Pressures building within the Curia, together with ongoing conflicts among the Roman nobility, would erupt after the death of Pope Callixtus II in 1124. The pontificates of Urban II and Paschal II had seen an expansion in the College of Cardinals of Italian clerics that strengthened the local Roman influence. These cardinals were reluctant to meet with the group of cardinals recently promoted by Callixtus II, who were mainly French or Burgundian.[1] As far as the older cardinals were concerned, these newer cardinals were dangerous innovators, and they were determined to resist their increasing influence.[1] The northern cardinals, led by Cardinal Aymeric de Bourgogne (the Papal Chancellor), were equally determined to ensure that the elected pope would be one of their candidates.[1] Both groups looked towards the great Roman families for support.

 
The area of medieval Rome controlled by the Frangipani family

By 1124, there were two great factions dominating local politics in Rome: the Frangipani family, which controlled the region around the fortified Colosseum and supported the northern cardinals,[1] and the Pierleoni family, which controlled the Tiber Island and the fortress of the Theatre of Marcellus and supported the Italian cardinals. With Callixtus II's death on 13 December 1124, both families agreed that the election of the next pope should be in three days time, in accordance with the church canons. The Frangipani, led by Leo Frangipani, pushed for a delay in order that they could promote their preferred candidate, Lamberto,[2] but the people were eager to see Saxo de Anagni, the Cardinal-Priest of San Stefano in Celiomonte elected as the next pope.[2] Leo, eager to ensure a valid election, approached key members of every Cardinal's entourage, promising each one that he would support their master when the voting for the election was underway.[3]

ElectionEdit

On 16 December, the Cardinals, including Lamberto, assembled in the chapel of the monastery of St. Pancratius attached to the south of the Lateran basilica.[3] There, at the suggestion of Jonathas, the cardinal-deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano, who was a partisan of the Pierleoni family, the Cardinals unanimously elected as Pope the cardinal-priest of Sant’ Anastasia, Theobaldo Boccapecci, who took the name Celestine II.[4] He had only just put on the red mantle and the Te Deum was being sung when an armed party led by Roberto Frangipani[5] (in a move pre-arranged with Cardinal Aymeric)[1] burst in, attacked the newly enthroned Celestine, who was wounded, and acclaimed Lamberto as Pope.[4] Since Celestine had not been formally consecrated pope, the wounded candidate declared himself willing to resign, but the Pierleoni family and their supporters refused to accept Lamberto,[1] who in the confusion had been proclaimed Pope under the name Honorius II.[6] Historians call the election "a travesty of canonical procedure".[7]

Rome descended into factional infighting, while Cardinal Aymeric and Leo Frangipani attempted to win over the resistance of Urban, the City Prefect, and the Pierleoni family with bribes and extravagant promises. Eventually, Celestine's supporters abandoned him, leaving Honorius the only contender for the papal throne.[6] Honorius, unwilling to accept the throne in such a manner, resigned his position before the assembled Cardinals,[6] but was immediately and unanimously re-elected and consecrated on 21 December 1124.[1]

CardinalsEdit

The College of Cardinals probably had between 47 and 53 members.[a] Little information is available on which Cardinals were actually present in Rome during the election(s).

The following table lists the Cardinals who were alive at the time of the election[9].

Elector Title[g] Elevated Elevator Notes
Crescenzio Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina 1102[10] Paschal II
Pietro Senex Cardinal-Bishop of Porto c. 1106 Paschal II
Lamberto Scannabecchi Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia 1116[11] Paschal II Elected pope Honorius II
Vitalis Cardinal-Bishop of Albano 1116[12] Paschal II
Guillaume Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina c. 1122[13] Callixtus II
Gilles de Paris Cardinal-Bishop of Tusculum c. 1122[14] Callixtus II
Bonifacio Cardinal-Priest of S. Marco c. 1100[15] Paschal II prior cardinalium (by 1127)[16]
Gregorio de Ceccano Cardinal-Priest of Ss. XII Apostoli c. 1102[17] Paschal II Future antipope Victor IV
Benedict Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli c. 1102[18] Paschal II
Anastasius Cardinal-Priest of S. Clemente c. 1102[19] Paschal II
Teobaldo Boccapecci Cardinal-Priest of S. Anastasia c. 1103 or 1112[20] Paschal II Elected pope Celestine II on 16 December, and resigned
Ioannes[h] Cardinal-Priest of S. Cecilia c. 1106 Paschal II
Corrado della Suburra Cardinal-Priest of S. Pudenziana c. 1113[22] Paschal II Future pope Anastasius IV
Teobaldo Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo c. 1117 Paschal II
Deusdedit Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso c. 1116 Paschal II
Gregorio Albergati Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina c. 1116 Paschal II
Petrus Pisanus Cardinal-Priest of S. Susanna c. 1116/1117[23] Paschal II
Amico, O.S.B. Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo 1117[24] Paschal II
Desiderius Cardinal-Priest of S. Prassede c. 1115 Paschal II
Gerardo / Gregorio[i] Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Prisca ed Aquila c. 1115 Paschal II
Sigizo Cardinal-Priest of S. Sisto c. 1117 Paschal II
Saxo de Anagnia Cardinal - Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio c. 1117 Paschal II
Petrus Rufus (Pietro Ruffino Cariaceno)[j] Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino 1118 or 1122[k] Gelasius II[25]
Crescenzio di Anagni Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro c. 1121/1122 ?[26] Calixtus II
Petrus
(Pierre de Fontaines)[l]
Cardinal-Priest of S. Marcello c. 1120[27] Callixtus II
Gerardo Caccianemici Cardinal-Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme c. 1122[28] Callixtus II Future pope Lucius II
Ugo Lectifredo[m] Cardinal-Priest of S. Vitale 1123 Callixtus II
Roscemanno Cardinal-Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro c. 1112[29] Paschal II
Gregorio of Gaeta Cardinal-Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio c. 1112[30] Paschal II
Gregorio Papareschi Cardinal-Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria c. 1088?/1116[31] Paschal II Future pope Innocent II
Gregorio Cardinal-Deacon of S. Eustachio c. 1099 ?[32] Paschal II
Comes / Cosma Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro[n] c. 1116[o] Paschal II
Enrico[p] Cardinal-Deacon of S. Teodoro c. 1117[33] Paschal II
Angelo Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica c. 1122 Callixtus II
Romano Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Portico c. 1119[q] Callixtus II
Étienne de Bar Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin c. 1120[34] Callixtus II
Ionathas (Gionata) Cardinal-Deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano c. 1120[35] Callixtus II
Giovanni Dauferio Cardinal-Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere c. 1122 Callixtus II
Gregorio Tarquini Cardinal-Deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco c. 1122 Callixtus II
Uberto Lanfranchi[r] Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata c. 1123[36] Callixtus II
Gregorio Cardinal-Deacon of Ss. Vito e Modesto c. 1122[37] Callixtus II
Matteo Cardinal-Deacon of S. Adriano c. 1122[38] Callixtus II
Aymeric de la Châtre Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria Nuova 1122 or 1123[39] Callixtus II Chancellor

Absentee CardinalsEdit

Elector Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Giovanni da Crema Cardinal-Priest of S. Crisogono c. 1117 Paschal II Papal legate in Scotland or England at the time of the election[s]
Pietro Pierleoni Cardinal - Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere c. 1106 Paschal II Papal legate in France at the time of the election. Future antipope Anacletus II
Oderisio di Sangro[t] Cardinal-Priest of S. Ciriaco in Thermis[u] c. 1112 Paschal II Abbot of Montecassino

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Levillain, pg. 732
  2. ^ a b Mann, pg. 231
  3. ^ a b Mann, pg. 232
  4. ^ a b Thomas, pg. 90
  5. ^ a b c Miranda, Salvador (1998–2020). "Election of December 13 to 15, 1124 (Honorius II)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University Libraries. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 233
  7. ^ Stroll, Mary (2004). Calixtus the Second, 1119–1124: A Pope Born to Rule. Leiden: Brill. p. 164. ISBN 90-04-13987-7.
  8. ^ a b Adams, John Paul (August 10, 2015). "Sede Vacante 1124". Notes on Papal Elections and Conclaves. CSUN. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  9. ^ Based on Adams[8] and Miranda,[5] who in turn cite other sources including Brixius, Jaffé, Hüls, Klewitz, Stroll, Pandulf of Pisa and the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928
  10. ^ Hüls (1977), pp. 84, 127. Crescentius was present at the papal election of 24 January 1118. He remained in Rome when Pope Gelasius fled to Pisa and then France; he did not, therefore, sign papal documents in 1119 or the first half of 1120. In March 1119, he sent a letter from Rome to Cluny, approving the election of Pope Calixtus II. He subscribed ahead of Petrus of Porto, Cono of Palestrina, Lamberto of Ostia, and Vitalis of Albano.
  11. ^ Hüls (1977), p. 84, 106-107, 215. His position in the list of e[iscopal subscriptions reflects the date of his consecration as a bishop.
  12. ^ Vitalis always subscribes after Petrus of Porto: Hüls (1977), pp. 63, 84, 95. He was created a cardinal after 24 May 1116 and before 21 December.
  13. ^ Guillaume's predecessor, Cardinal Cono, died on 9 August 1122. Guillaume first subscribes on 6 April 1123. Hüls (1977), pp. 84, 114, 116. He signed after Vitalis and Divizo.
  14. ^ Aegidius (Gilles) first subscribes on 6 April 1123. Hüls (1977), pp. 84, 142-143.
  15. ^ Bonifacius had his title at least by 1100, according to the Anciennitatprinzip. Huls, p. 85; 186. His earliest subscription, however, is in 1111.
  16. ^ Francesco Liverani, Delle opere di monsignor Francesco Liverani Volume IV (Macerata: Alessandro Mancini 1859), pp. 258-264, at p. 262.
  17. ^ Gregorius had his title at least by 1102, according to the Anciennitatprinzip. Huls, p. 85; he subscribes after Bonifacio and before Benedictus and Anastasius; his earliest surviving subscription, however, is dated 18 February 1107: Huls, p. 107.
  18. ^ Benedictus' earliest subscription occurs on 23 March 1112: Hüls (1977), p. 195. The Anciennitatprinzip worked out by Huls, p. 86, shows that he would have been created a cardinal by 1102; he has precedence over Bonifacio of S. Marco and Anastasius of S. Clemente.
  19. ^ Hüls (1977), pp. 85, 161.
  20. ^ Teobaldo's earliest subscription is apparently on 3 July 1103, but Hüls (1977), p. 235, n. 2, doubts it since it is not in agreement with his Anciennitätprinzip, and Teobaldo's subscription of 30 January 1110 indicates that he was a deacon of the Lateran Palace. His earliest subscription as cardinal-deacon of S. Maria Nuova occurs on 23 March 1112. On 17 April 1121 he was still Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria Nuova. He became Cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia before 6 April 1123. HHüls (1977), p. 149.
  21. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino (1975). "Capizucchi, Roberto". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  22. ^ Hüls, pp. 85, 201.
  23. ^ Petrus had previously been Cardinal-deacon of S. Adriano, attested from 1113 to 1116. Hüls, pp. 85, 210, 219-220.
  24. ^ Hüls, p. 193. Ganzer, p. 69.
  25. ^ Hüls, pp. 193, 220.
  26. ^ Hüls, pp. 85, 183-184, states that he was created a cardinal in 1121 or 1122. Barbara Zenker, p. 115, assigns his appointment to Gelasius II (1118).
  27. ^ Petrus' earliest surviving subscription is dated 24 September 1120. He was deposed in March 1139 by Innocent II, as an adherent of the Obedience of Pope Anacletus II. Hüls, pp. 85, 184.
  28. ^ Hüls, pp. 86, 164
  29. ^ Hüls, pp. 86, 227. His earliest appearance in the record is at the Lateran council on 23 March 1112.
  30. ^ Hüls, p. 229.
  31. ^ Gregorius' earliest subscription occurs on 24 May 1116. Hüls, pp. 223-224, whose Anciennitätprinzip (p. 86) also assigns him a date of 1116. Hüls, p. 222, places Cardinal Berardus at S. Angelo in Pescheria between 1107 and 1109, which makes Cardinal Gregorio's early tenure under Urban II impossible.
  32. ^ Hüls, p. 227, marks his first documented appearance as an elector of Pope Gelasius II in January 1118. His position in the subscription lists, Hüls' Anciennitätprinzip (p. 86), assigns him a date of c. 1110. He joined the Obedience of Pope Anacletus II in 1130.
  33. ^ He is named as one of the electors of Pope Gelasius II in January 1118.
  34. ^ Stephanus subscribes just after Romanus of S. Maria in Porticu. His earliest surviving subscription is on 24 September 1120 in Benevento. Hüls, p. 86, 232-233.
  35. ^ Hüls, p. 87.
  36. ^ Cardinal Uberto subscribed after Gregorio of Ss. Sergio e Bacco, and before Matteo of S. Adriano. His earliest known subscription is on 6 April 1123. Hüls places his appointment in 1122. Hüls, pp. 87, 238-239.
  37. ^ Hüls, pp. 87, 244.
  38. ^ Cardinal Matthaeus first subscribes on 6 April 1123; he was appointed cardinal-priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli by 7 May 1128: Hüls, pp. 87, 221.
  39. ^ Hüls, pp. 87, 236.

Works citedEdit

  • Hüls, Rudolf (1977). Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049–1130 (in German). Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom. ISBN 978-3-484-80071-7.
  • Levillain, Philippe (2002) The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, Vol II: Gaius-Proxies, Routledge
  • Mann, Horace K. (1925) The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages, Vol 8
  • Thomas, P. C. (2007) A Compact History of the Popes, St Pauls BYB
  • Miranda, Salvador. "Election of December 13 to 15, 1124 (Honorius II)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University.
  • Zenker, Barbara (1964). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (in German). Würzburg.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Miranda[5] lists 47 members; Adams[8] lists 49, but mentions Panvinio who states there were 53 Cardinals taking part in the election.
  2. ^ The title of S. Balbina may have been occupied by Cardinal Gregorio, but the time of his creation is uncertain. Adams notes that, according to Pandulphus of Pisa, he was made a Cardinal by Callixtus II. Adams also notes that, according to Hüls, Gregorio was created by Honorius II in 1125. Miranda joins the latter opinion and considers the title to be vacant at the time of the election.
  3. ^ Miranda mentions Giovanni O.S.B. Cas. at S. Eusebio. Adams notes that Cardinal Robertus (who was in schism since 1116) was restored to the title by the end of 1121. Even then, it remains unsure whether Cardinal Robertus was still alive for the election in 1124.
  4. ^ Both Adams and Miranda consider that there may have been a Cardinal Stefano at S. Lucia in Selci at the time of the election. The most likely candidate, Stefano Stornato, was probably created Cardinal only in 1125 by Honorius II, making the status of the title during the election quite unsure.
  5. ^ Miranda mentions Cardinal Bosone at Ss. Quattro Coronati, Adams considers the title to be vacant. Miranda's Bosone appears to be another Cardinal than Boso of S. Anastasia who resigned his title to become bishop of Turin in 1122.
  6. ^ It is unclear whether Cardinals Comes of S. Maria in Aquiro and Comes of S. Sabina are the same person or not.
  7. ^ The table does not list the following titles, for which there appears to be a lot of uncertainty: S. Balbina ,[b]S. Eusebio ,[c]S. Lucia in Selci ,[d]Ss. Quattro Coronati [e] and S. Sabina [f]
  8. ^ Miranda places Gianroberto Capizucchi at S. Cecilia. However, this "Cardinal Capizucchi" might be a fake.[21]
  9. ^ Miranda notes that Cardinal Gerardo died around 1120 and does not mention the title for the 1124 election; Miranda follows the Liber Pontificalis (Petrus Pisanus), and confuses the evidence. Adams records only Gerardus, and states, on the authority of Hüls, p. 199, that his latest surviving subscription stems from 1129.
  10. ^ Miranda lists a Cardinal Domnizzone at Ss. Silvestro e Martino for the election of 1124. He contradicts himself, however, by accepting that Pietro Cariaceno occupied that title since December 1122. Adams notes that Divizo (Domnizzone) was promoted to Cardinal-bishop of Tusculum, and was succeeded at Tusculum by Gilles de Paris (Aegidius) by the end of 1121. Divizo was succeeded at Ss. Silvestro e Martino by Petrus Rufus.
  11. ^ According to Adams, following Hüls, p. 220, he was previously Cardinal-deacon of S. Adriano (it is unclear whether it is the same "Petrus Rufus" created by Gelasius II, or another Petrus created by Paschal II). Miranda makes a distinction between Pietro "il Diacono" of S. Adriano and Pietro Cariaceno of Ss. Silvestro e Martino. Adams indicates, however, that the former could not have been Cardinal of S. Adriano at the time.
  12. ^ Zenker, p. 102, says that he was a Burgundian.
  13. ^ According to Miranda, Cardinal Lectifredo was created in a consistory celebrated in 1123. Adams notes that Lectifredo first subscribes in 1128 and considers the title of S. Vitale to be vacant for the election of 1124.
  14. ^ Adams lists him as Cardinal-Priest of S. Sabina, based on a subscription on April 15, 1123. This may be an error, since he states elsewhere that he was promoted only in 1126 by Honorius II.
  15. ^ Miranda states that he was created in 1088 (hence by Urban II). Adams considers this unlikely since he only begins to subscribe in 1116.
  16. ^ He was Dean of Mazara in Sicily. Mazara is not his name, but his ecclesiastical position. Hüls, p. 242.
  17. ^ According to Miranda he was made a Cardinal in 1099 by Paschal II. Adams considers him a creation of Gelasius II.
  18. ^ According to Miranda, Uberto Lanfranchi was only created Cardinal at S. Clemente in 1125. He places a Cardinal Romualdo Guarna at S. Maria in Via Lata at the time of the election. Romualdo did, however, become Archbishop of Salerno in 1121, resigning his title of Cardinal. Miranda doesn't seem to differentiate between Romuald I and Romuald Guarna (II).
  19. ^ Adams states that he was given the mission by Pope Callixtus II. On 1 June 1124, the legate was in Rouen. On 29 March 1125, he celebrated Easter at Canterbury: Hüls, p. 176, n. 38. Pope Honorius II wrote a letter to him on 13 April 1125, authorizing him to carry on the legantine task given him by Pope Calixtus (Jaffe-Lowenfeld, Regesta pontificum Romanorum I (Leipzig 1885), #7203). He was still in England, and present at the Council of London on 9 September 1125. According to Miranda he was present for the election and only left for England in 1125.
  20. ^ Cardinal Oderisio did not participate in the election according to Petrus Diaconus, cited by Adams. According to Miranda, he did participate.
  21. ^ Cardinal Oderisio was promoted from S. Agata to S. Ciriaco in Thermis in 1122, according to Miranda. Adams is less sure of this and states that the date of the promotion is not recorded.