The 1119 papal election (held January 29 to February 2) was, of all the elections currently considered legitimate by the Roman Catholic Church, the smallest papal election of the twelfth century.
|Dates and location|
|29 January – 2 February 1119|
Cluny Abbey, Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France
|Guy de Bourgogne|
Name taken: Callixtus II
It is likely that only two cardinal bishops, four cardinal priests and four cardinal deacons participated in the election. The election took place in the abbey of Cluny in Burgundy, France, while most of the other cardinals remained in Italy. A non-cardinal Guy de Bourgogne, the Archbishop of Vienne, was elected Pope Callixtus II. It was agreed by the cardinals at Cluny that they would seek the approval of the cardinals in Rome before they proceeded to enthrone the elected person. The cardinals in Rome granted their consent, and Guy was crowned in Vienne on February 9. Having spent more than a year restoring affairs in France and Germany, he reached Rome on 3 June 1120.
Death of Pope GelasiusEdit
Pope Gelasius II was in exile from Rome, which was in the hands of the Emperor Henry V and his antipope Maurice Burdinus, and had fled to France. The struggle with the emperor over the Investiture Controversy was costing him dearly. He held a synod in Vienne in the first half of January 1119, from which he moved to Lyon by January 14. As he was leaving Vienne, Gelasius ordered Archbishop Guy of Vienne to join him in Cluny after he himself had arrived there. The pope then held another synod in Mâcon, where he was stricken by a sudden severe illness, which Pandulfus Pisanus identified as pleurisy. Immediately upon recognising the severity of his condition, he summoned Cardinal Kuno von Urach, the Bishop of Palestrina, and, according to Falco of Benevento, offered him the papacy. Kuno emphatically refused. Instead, Kuno suggested the archbishop of Vienne.
Gelasius was near death when his party reached Cluny, only 24 km (15 mi) from Mâcon, but he was able to have a farewell meeting with the cardinals who had accompanied him, and to receive the sacraments before he died on 29 July 1119.
The "Historia Compostelana" states that, before Pope Gelasius died, the archbishop of Vienne (Guy de Bourgogne) arrived, while the cardinals and the Bishops of Ostia and Porto were discussing possible candidates for the papacy with several Romans. Pope Gelasius (adhuc vivens, still alive) named the archbishop of Vienne and Abbot Pontius of Cluny to the Roman clergy and people as possible successors. The archbishop of Vienne, however, did not arrive at Cluny until 1 February, three days after the pope's death. Moreover, the cardinal bishops present at Cluny were Ostia and Palestrina, not Porto. The "Historia Compostelana" does not appear to be a reliable source.
The cardinals who accompanied Gelasius II to Cluny are known from the Liber Pontificalis associated with "Pandulphus" (either Pandulf of Pisa or Pandulf of Lucca), from the charter from Cluny, and from the chronicle of Ordericus Vitalis.
Probably ten cardinals took part in the election.
|Elector||Nationality||Cardinalatial order and title||Elevated||Elevator||Other ecclesiastical titles||Notes|
|Kuno von Urach||Germany||Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina||c. 1107||Paschal II||Papal legate in Germany and France|
|Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can.Reg.||Bologna (Fagnano)||Cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri||1105||Paschal II||Future Pope Honorius II (1124–1130)|
|Giovanni da Crema||Crema||Cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono||1116||Paschal II||Papal legate in Milan (1116)|
|Guido, O.S.B.||Italy||Cardinal-priest of S. Balbina||1116||Paschal II|
|Boso||Italy||Cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia||1113||Paschal II|
|Corrado da Suburra||Rome||Cardinal-priest of S. Pudenziana||c. 1111-1114||Paschal II||Future Pope Anastasius IV (1153–1154)|
|Gregorio Papareschi, Can.Reg.Lat.||Rome||Cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria||1116||Paschal II||Archdeacon of the Holy Roman Church||Future Pope Innocent II (1130–1143)|
|Pietro Pierleoni||Rome||Cardinal-deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano||Paschal II||Future Antipope Anacletus II (1130–1138)|
|Crisogono||Pisa||Cardinal-deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere||1117||Paschal II||Bibliothecarius of the Holy Roman Church|
|Roscemanno, O.S.B.Cas.||Marsica||Cardinal-deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro||c. 1112 ?||Paschal II||Of the Counts of Marsi|
The cardinals attending the requiem Mass of Gelasius II in Cluny on 30 January 1119 were divided over whether his successor should be elected on the spot (as was permitted by the papal bull In Nomine Domini of Pope Nicholas II), or whether they should return to Rome and hold the election with the full College of Cardinals. A major consideration was the schism in which the emperor supported his own anti-pope, "Gregory VIII" (Maurice Burdinus), which could profit from the absence of a legitimate pope. Although the cardinals proceeded with the election immediately, they agreed that they would submit their choice to the entire College thereafter. The election, following canon law, would not have begun until three days after the pope's death, 1 February, and, according to the rules established by Nicholas II, the two cardinal-bishops, Lambertus and Kono, had the exclusive right of nomination. Archbishop Guy of Vienne arrived at Cluny on that same day, 1 February.
Archbishop Guy was probably the most prominent prelate in Europe. His grandfather had been Duke Richard II of Normandy, making Guy a cousin of King Henry I of England; his brother Raymornd had been Duke of Burgundy, and his sister married his successor; his brother Étienne had been Comte de Varsac et de Mâcon; his brother Raymond, Count d' Amous, had married Urraca, the daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile, making the young Alfonso VII his nephew and ward; a sister was Countess of Savoy and mother of Amadeus III. When Alfonso VI died on 30 June 1109, Guy became tutor (governor) of the under-age Alfonso VII, along with Archbishop Didacus of Compostela and Queen Urraca, and traveled to Bourgos to participate of the swearing of fealty to the young monarch.
Although the contemporary accounts diverge on many points, it is clear across them[contradictory]that the two candidates who emerged were Guy and Pontius of Cluny, both named as candidates by the late pontiff. The account of Gaufrid, prior of Vigois, relates that Gelasius II had preferred Pontius and predicted his election;[disputed ] In the view of Mary Stroll, Pontius was a far more conciliatory candidate, likely to negotiate a solution to the Investiture Controversy. Two accounts in particular—those of Bernard of Carrion in the "Historia Compostelana", and Gaufrid of Vigois—detail the election of Guy, emphasizing the importance of his known confrontational stance towards Henry V (having previously excommunicated him) and his powerful family, the Salian dynasty.
According to the Historia Compostelana, immediately following his election as Callixtus II, Guy de Bourgogne was being invested with the papal red mantle, as was the ceremonial custom. His retainers (contribulibus atque militibus suis), when they learned of his election, broke down the doors to the election chamber and rushed in with weapons in their hands; they approached the pope-elect, and violently tore off his mantle, stole, and other papal vestments. They complained that Vienne, Burgundy, and France did not want to lose such a wonderful patron, and demanded that the electors choose someone else. In fact, the violence was a demonstration in favor of Callixtus, but in favor of retaining him as archbishop. No other source, particularly not Pandulphus Pisanus, who was present, notices this incident.
Following his enthronement, the new pope and Archbishop Didacus Gelmirez of Compostela were not friends.
After a year travelling throughout France and holding councils and synods, the pope departed Cluny on 7 January 1120 on his journey to Italy. He reached Pisa on 12 May, and returned to Rome on 3 June. In April 1121, Callixtus II proceeded to Sutri, the location of his opponent, Antipope Gregory VIII, appointed by Henry V. The siege, which was being conducted by Cardinal Giovanni da Crema lasted for an additional eight days, until Gregory VIII was handed over to the pope. Callixtus then imprisoned the former antipope at the monastery of S. Lucia ad Saepta Solis, from which he was moved from monastery to monastery until his death in 1137.
- Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages IV, p. 391. Watterich II, pp. 122-124.
- Miranda, Salvador. "Election of January 29 - February 2, 1119 (Callistus II)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University. OCLC 53276621. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages IV, pp. 387-390.
- Robert, Bullarium I, p, 1, no. 1, a letter from Guy (Calixtus II) to Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz.
- Watterich II, p. 104.
- Karl, Holder (1892). Die Designation der Nachfolger durch die Papste. Freiburgh: Veith. pp. 57–61.
- Gregorovius IV, p. 390. Falco of Benevento, in: Watterich II, p. 111: "Sed antequam terminus statutus synodum celebrandi advenisset, apud monasterium sancti Petri, quod vocatur Clunia, ubi diligenter morabatur, aegritudinis mole detentus est. Confestim se infirmitatis validae dissolutione teneri persentiens, Palestrinum acciri iussit episcopum, et imponere illi tanti honoris culmen Romanae sedis satagebat."
- Philipp Jaffé (1885). G. Wattenbach (ed.). Regesta pontificum romanorum: ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (in Latin). Vol. Tomus I (2nd ed.). Leipzig: Veit. p. 780.
- Canon law, dating back to Pope Symmachus in 499, forbade discussion of papal candidates while the pope was alive. Andreas Thiel (1868), Epistolae Romanorum pontificum genuinae et quae ad eos scriptae sunt, Tomus I (Brunsberg: E. Peter), pp. 645-647: "si quis presbyter aut diaconus aut clericus, papa incolumi et eo inconsulto, aut subscriptionem pro Romano pontificatu commodare, aut pitacio promittere aut sacramentum praebere tentaverit aut aliquod certe suffragium polliceri, vel de hac causa privatis conventiculis factis deliberare atque decernere, loci sui dignitate vel communione privetur...pari severitate feriendo eo, qui hoc vivo, sicuti dictum est, Pontifice quolibet modo fuerit ambisse convictus aut certe tentasse, omnibus pariter hujus culpae reis anathematis poena plectendis."
- "Historia Compostelana" II. 9; Watterich II, p. 124.
- That was Calixtus II's own statement. Robert, Bullaire I, p. 1: "Congregati namque in unum die altero post adventum meum, episcopi, cardinales et clerici et laici Romanorum..."
- Stroll, 2004, p. 58.
- Ordericus Vitalis, in his Historia Ecclesiastica (XII. 9; pp. 334-335 le Prevost) states: "Anno ab Incarnatione Domini Mo Co XIXa, indictione XIIa, Gelasius secundus Papa IVo kalendas februarii apud Cluniacum mortuus et sepultus est, et Guido, Viennensis archiepiscopus, in Callixtum Papam IVo nonas februarii electus est. Ibi Lambertus Ostiensis et Boso Portuensis, Cono Praenestinus et Johannes Cremensis, aliique plures de Romano senatu clerici affuere, quibus specialis praerogativa concessa est Papam eligere et consecrare. Intronisatus est itaque Guido ...." Oderic was wrong to name the Bishop of Porto, whose name was Pietro, who was serving as Vicar of Rome in the absence of the pope.
- S. Miranda Election of 1119; Stroll, 2004, p. 58-59 and 61-62.
- Hüls, pp. 113-116.
- At a session for signing bulls in 1119, reported by Hugh the Chanter, the pope signed with his own hand. "Deinde Ostiensis episcopus subscribens sic ait, "Spatium proxime [post] dominum papam ad scribendum domino Praenestino reservo, quoniam prior meus est." Cardinal Kuno had precedence over Cardinal Lamberto. James Raine (ed.) (1886), The Historians of the Church of York and Its Archbishops Volume II (London: Longman 1886), p. 182. (in Latin)
- G. Trombelli, Memorie istoriche cocern. le due canoniche di S. Maria di Reno e di S. Salvatore (in Italian) (Bologna 1752), p. 207.
- Hüls, pp. 176-178.
- Hüls, p. 153. Guido died on 7 January 1119, or 1120. If in 1119, he did not participate in the election of Calixtus II.
- Hüls, pp. 146-149. Boso was a cardinal-deacon before 1113; cardinal-priest by 16 October 1113.
- Hüls, pp. 201-202.
- Hüls, pp. 223-225.
- Hüls, p. 225. He was promoted cardinal-priest of Santa Maria in Trastevere on 12 June 1120.
- Hüls, p. 240. There is no evidence of him after 26 June 1122.
- U. Robert, Bullaire, pp. x-xi.
- Hüls, pp. 227-228.
- According to the "Historia Compostella", in Watterich II, p. 124, the body of Pope Gelasius was brought to Cluny, where the bishops of the province gathered: "Defuncto enim Papa Gelasio et eius corpore in Cluniacum delato, comprovinciales episcopi ad exhibendum obsequium eius exequiis illo convenerunt." The bishops of the province certainly included the Bishop of Nevers and the Bishop of Angoulême, according to Cardinal Kono: J. P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae Latinae Tomus CLXIII, column 1438.
- Robert, Bullaire I, p. 1: "Congregati namque in unum die altero post adventum meum, episcopi, cardinales et clerici et laici Romanorum..."
- Gregorovius IV, pp. 390-391. Cardinal Boso, "Life of Calixtus II," in: Watterich II, p. 118: "Hic de sanguine regum ac principum est ortus, et inter seculares clarus et inter ecclesiasticos exstitit maximus."
- Ordericus Vitalis, in: Watterich II, p. 121. Robert, Histoire du Pape Calixte, pp. 2-3. Three of these brothers had died on crusade.
- Robert, pp. 27-28. V. H., Friedel (1899). "Etudes Compostellanes (in French)". Otia Merseiana. I: 89. Alfonso VII assumed power on 10 March 1126.
- Stroll, 2004, p. 59.
- Flórez (1765). España sagrada XX. p. 270.: "De cetero cum diutius Burgis moraremur, ecce B. Prior Carrionensis, quem ut supra dixi ad Papam Gelasium vice nostra misimus, advenit, referens dissolutionem Papae Gelasii. Retulit etiam nobis quomodo Guido Vienensis Archiepiscopus frater Comitis Raymundi electus et consecratus fuisset in Romanum Pontificem."
- Bernard had been sent to France to Pope Gelasius as the representative of Queen Uracca of Castile. He was accompanied by Girardus, the nephew of Archbishop Didacus Gelmirez, who was an accomplished forger. They represented opposite sides in a power struggle to control Castile and Aragon. Flórez (1765). España sagrada XX. p. 270. V. H., Friedel (1899). "Etudes Compostellanes (in French)". Otia Merseiana. I: 75–112, at 91-94.
- Watterich II, p. 115.
- "Historia compostelana," in: Watterich II, p. 125. The story is accepted as true by Stroll, 2004, p. 64; and by V. H., Friedel (1899), p. 94. Ulysse Robert, Histoire du Pape Calixte, p. 43, is dubious: "D'après ;auteur de l Historia Compostellana, dont ee témoinage ne mérite pas toujouirs créance, l'élection n'aurait pas eu sans violences."
- V. H., Friedel (1899). "Etudes Compostellanes (in French)". Otia Merseiana. I: 75–112, at 93-94.
- Gregorovius IV, pp. 392-393.
- Jaffé, Regesta pontificum I, p. 792, 795.
- Jaffé, Regesta pontificum I, p. 799.
- S. Miranda Election of antipope Gregory VIII
- Flórez, Enrique (1765). España sagrada. Theatro geográphico-histórico de la Iglesia de España ...: Historia compostelana (in Spanish and Latin). Vol. Tomo XX. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia.
- Gregorovius, Ferdinand (1896). History of Rome in the Middle Ages. Volume IV. part 2, second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1896).
- Hüls, Rudolf (1977). Kardinal, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049–1130, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer 1977. (in German)
- Robert, Ulysse (1891). Bullaire du Pape Callixte II: essai de restitution (in French). Vol. Tome I. Paris: Imprimerie nationale.
- Jaffé, Philippus (1885). Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (in Latin). Vol. Tomus primus (second ed.). Leipzig: Veit.
- Robert, Ulysse (1891). Histoire du pape Calixte II (in French). Paris: Alphonse Picard.
- Stroll, Mary. 2004. Calixtus II (1119-1124): A Pope Born to Rule. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-13987-7.
- Watterich, J. B. M. (1862). Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae: ab aequalibus conscriptae (in Latin). Vol. Tom. II. Leipzig: G. Engelmann.
- John Paul Adams (2010, revised 2016), "Sede Vacante 1119 (January 29 — February 2, 1119)." Conclave. California State University Northridge. Retrieved: 12 August 2021.
- John Paul Adams, "List of Documents concerning the Papal Election of 1119." Conclave. California State University Northridge. Retrieved: 12 August 2021.