1,3-Dichloropropene, sold under diverse trade names, is an organochlorine compound. It is colorless liquid with a sweet smell. It dissolves in water and evaporates easily. It is used mainly in farming as a pesticide, specifically as a preplant fumigant and nematicide. It is widely used in the US and other countries, but is banned in 34 countries,[4] including the European Union.[5]

Skeletal formula of the trans isomer
Skeletal formula of the cis isomer
Ball-and-stick model of the trans isomer
Ball-and-stick model of the cis isomer
Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
AQL Agrocelhone, DD92, 1,3-D, Dorlone, Nematox, Telone,[1][2] Nemex, cis-Dichloropropene, Di-Trapex CP, Vorlex 201, dichloro-1,3-propene, 1,3-dichloro-1-propene, 1,3-dichloro-2-propene, alpha-chloroallylchloride, chloroallylchloride, gamma-chloroallylchloride, chloroallyl chloride, chloroorpropenyl chloride, 1,3-dichloropropylene, 3-D, DCP, 3-Chloroallyl chloride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.008.024 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 208-826-5
MeSH 1,3-dichloro-1-propene
RTECS number
  • UC8310000
UN number 2047
  • InChI=1S/C3H4Cl2/c4-2-1-3-5/h1-2H,3H2/b2-1+ checkY
  • InChI=1/C3H4Cl2/c4-2-1-3-5/h1-2H,3H2/b2-1+
  • Cl[C@H]=CCCl
Molar mass 110.97 g/mol
Appearance Colorless to straw-colored liquid
Odor sweet, chloroform-like
Density 1.217 g/mL (cis); 1.224 g/mL (trans)
Melting point −84.5 °C (−120.1 °F; 188.7 K)
Boiling point 104 °C (219 °F; 377 K) (cis); 112 °C (trans)
2.18 g/L (cis) @ 25 °C; 2.32 g/L (trans) @ 25 °C
log P 1.82
Vapor pressure 34.4 mm Hg @ 25 °C (cis); 23.0 mm Hg @ 25 °C (trans)
GHS labelling:
GHS05: CorrosiveGHS06: ToxicGHS07: Exclamation markGHS08: Health hazardGHS09: Environmental hazard
H226, H301, H302, H305, H311, H315, H317, H319, H331, H332, H335, H410
P210, P233, P240, P241, P242, P243, P261, P264, P270, P271, P272, P273, P280, P301+P310, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P312, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P311, P312, P321, P322, P330, P331, P332+P313, P333+P313, P337+P313, P361, P362, P363, P370+P378, P391, P403+P233, P403+P235, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash point 28 °C (82 °F; 301 K)
> 500 °C (932 °F; 773 K)
Explosive limits 5.3% - 14.5% (80 °C)
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
REL (Recommended)
Ca TWA 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) [skin][3]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Ca [N.D.][3]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Production, chemical properties, biodegradationEdit

It is a byproduct in the chlorination of propene to make allyl chloride.[6]

It is usually obtained as a mixture of the geometric isomers, called (Z)-1,3-dichloropropene, and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene. Although it was first applied in agriculture in the 1950s, at least two biodegradation pathways have evolved. One pathway degrades the chlorocarbon to acetaldehyde via chloroacrylic acid.[7]


The TLV-TWA for 1,3-dichloropropene (DCP) is 1 ppm.[8] It is a contact irritant. A wide range of complications have been reported.[9]


Evidence for the carcinogenicity of 1,3-dichloropropene in humans is inadequate, but results from several cancer bioassays provide adequate evidence of carcinogenicity in animals. In the US, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that 1,3-dichloropropene may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. In California, the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has determined that 1,3-dichloropropene is a carcinogen, and in 2022 established a No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) of 3.7micrograms/day.[10] The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that 1,3-dichloropropene is possibly carcinogenic to humans. The EPA has classified 1,3-dichloropropene as a probable human carcinogen.[9]


1,3-Dichloropropene is used as a pesticide in the following crops:[11]

1,3-Dichloropropene Use in Crops
Crop Pounds (lb) Primary Pesticide?
Tobacco 12,114,887 Yes
Potatoes 12,044,736 Yes
Sugar Beets 5,799,613 Yes
Cotton 3,735,543 Yes
Peanuts 3,463,003 Yes
Sweet Potatoes 1,210,872 Yes
Onions 674,183 Yes
Carrots 531,752 Yes
Watermelons 133,801 No
Cantaloups 121,395 No
Cucumbers 76,735 No
Strawberries 71,753 No
Sweet Peppers 28,247 No
Melons 12,471 No
Blueberries 3,090 No
Asparagus 1,105 No


The ATSDR has extensive contamination information available.[12]

Frequency of NPL Sites with 1,3-Dichloropropene Contamination

Market historyEdit

Under the brand name Telone, 1,3-D was one of Dow AgroSciences's products until the merger into DowDuPont. Then it was spun off with Corteva, and as of 2020 has been licensed to Telos Ag Solutions and is no longer a Corteva product.[1][2]


  1. ^ a b Martin, Frank N. (2003). "Development of Alternative Strategies for Management of Soilborne Pathogens Currently Controlled with Methyl Bromide". Annual Review of Phytopathology. Annual Reviews. 41 (1): 325–350. doi:10.1146/annurev.phyto.41.052002.095514. ISSN 0066-4286. PMID 14527332.
  2. ^ a b "Telone soil fumigant to be distributed by Telos Ag Solutions". Vegetable Growers News. 17 November 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  3. ^ a b c NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0199". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  4. ^ "PAN International Consolidated List of Banned Pesticides | PAN International". Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  5. ^ COMMISSION DECISION of 13 May 2022 concerning the non-approval of the active substance 1,3-dichloropropene , Official Journal of the European Union, 13 May 2022.
  6. ^ Krähling, Ludger; Krey, Jürgen; Jakobson, Gerald; Grolig, Johann; Miksche, Leopold (15 June 2000), "Allyl Compounds", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_425, ISBN 3527306730, retrieved 18 March 2022
  7. ^ Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Whitman, Christian P. (1 October 2004). "Evolution of enzymatic activity in the tautomerase superfamily: mechanistic and structural studies of the 1,3-dichloropropene catabolic enzymes". Bioorganic Chemistry. Mechanistic Enzymology. 32 (5): 376–392. doi:10.1016/j.bioorg.2004.05.006. ISSN 0045-2068. PMID 15381403.
  8. ^ Robert L. Metcalf "Insect Control" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" Wiley-VCH, Wienheim, 2002. doi:10.1002/14356007.a14_263
  9. ^ a b "ToxFAQs - Letter A | Toxic Substance Portal | ATSDR".
  10. ^ https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/crnr/proposition-65-no-significant-risk-level-13-dichloropropene-13-d 21 June 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  11. ^ "National Totals of Pesticide Use (pounds applied and acres treated) by Crop and Compound". USGS. Archived from the original on 10 April 2007.
  12. ^ "TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR DICHLOROPROPENES" (PDF). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. September 2008.

Further readingEdit