-ana (variant: -iana) is a Latin-origin suffix that is used in English to convert nouns—usually proper names—into mass nouns, most commonly in order to refer to a collection of things, facts, stories, memorabilia, and anything else, that relate to a specific place, period, person, etc.
For instance, Americana is used to refer to things that are distinctive of the US, while Canadiana is for Canada; in literature, Shakespeareana and Dickensiana are similarly used in reference to items or stories related to William Shakespeare or Charles Dickens, respectively.
The suffix -ana, -iana, or -eana have also often been used in the titles of musical works, as a way for a composer to pay tribute to an earlier composer or noted performer.
History and lexicologyEdit
The suffix has been around since at least the 16th century, typically in book titles, with the first recorded use of -ana being between 1720 to 1730.
The recognition of the usage of -ana or -iana as a self-conscious literary construction, on the other hand, traces back to at least 1740, when it was mentioned in an edition of Scaligerana, a collection of table talk of Joseph Justus Scaliger, from around 150 years previously. By that period, Scaliger was described as "the father, so to speak, of all those books published under the title of -ana."
As grammatical construction, it is the neuter plural, nominative form of an adjective. So, from Scaliger is formed first the adjective Scaligeranus (Scaligeran), which is then put into the form of an abstract noun, Scaligerana (Scaligeran things). In Americana, a variant construction, the adjectival form already exists as Americanus, so it is simply a neuter plural (suffix –a on the stem American-); the case of Victoriana (things associated with the Victorian period) is superficially similar, but the Latin adjective form is Dog Latin.
- Africana — things relating to Africa
- Americana — things relating to the United States
- Australiana — things relating to Australia
- Canadiana — things relating to Canada
- Filipiniana — things relating to the Philippines
- Kiwiana — things relating to New Zealand
- Rhodesiana — things relating to Rhodesia
- Bondiana — items relating to James Bond.
- Dickensiana — items or stories related to Charles Dickens
- Forteana — things related to Charles Fort or anomalous phenomena
- Johnsoniana — the sayings or writings of Samuel Johnson
- Miltoniana — items or stories related to John Milton
- Shakespeareana — items or stories related to William Shakespeare.
- Sherlockiana — a broad term relating to memorabilia and non-canonical works of fiction about or referring to the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes
- Thraliana — the name of a diary kept by Hester Thrale
- Absinthiana – accoutrements related to absinthe and its preparation.
- Arthuriana — things relating to King Arthur and Arthurian literature.
- Breweriana — collectables associated with a brewery or one of its brands, including beer cans, caps bottles, labels, mats, trays, and taps, as well as bottle openers, tin signs, and neon signs.
- Disneyana — items related to the The Walt Disney Company, including collectibles, souvenirs, ephemera, and other items produced and/or licensed by Disney.
- Mozartiana — things relating to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
- Petroliana — collectibles relating to gas stations or the petroleum industry, including such items as old gas pumps, fuel advertisements, enamel or tin signs, oil cans, and road maps. (See also Automobilia)
- Railroadiana (or railwayana) — artifacts of currently- or formerly-operating railways.
- Tobacciana — things relating to tobacco, smoking, and the tobacco industry
- Trumpiana — materials or documents relating to Donald Trump
- Victoriana — items from or related to the Victorian era.
In 1718, Charles Gildon subtitled The Complete Art of Poetry with "Shakespeariana; or the most beautiful topicks, descriptions, and similes that occur throughout all Shakespear's plays."
In 1728, Jonathan Smedley had a work titled Gulliveriana: or a Fourth Volume of Miscellanies, being a sequel of the three volumes published by Pope and Swift, to which is added Alexanderiana, or a comparison between the ecclesiastical and poetical Popes and many things in verse and prose relating to the latter.
The suffix -iana, -eana or -ana has often been used in the titles of musical works, as a way of a composer paying a tribute to an earlier composer or a noted performer.
|Work||Type of work||Creator||Notes|
|Asturiana (1942)||symphony||María Teresa Prieto|
|Canadiana Suite (1964)||album||Oscar Peterson|
|Freudiana||rock-opera album||Eric Woolfson||Woolfon's first solo album, named after pioneer psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.|
|Frostiana (1959)||musical piece||Randall Thompson||The work involves 7 poems of Robert Frost, whom the piece is named after.|
|Kentuckiana: Divertissement On 20 Kentucky Airs, for 2 Pianos, 4 Hands (1948)||composition||Darius Milhaud|
|Kreisleriana||piano suite||Robert Schumann||The piece is named after the fictional literary character Johannes Kreisler created by E. T. A. Hoffmann.|
|Symphony No. 4 (1952) - originally entitled Sinfonia shakespeariana||symphony||Gösta Nystroem|
|Vincentiana||symphony||Einojuhani Rautavaara||This piece was named in honour of Vincent van Gogh and reuses some material from Rautavaara's earlier opera on van Gogh, titled Vincent.|
|Gillespiana (1960)||album||Dizzy Gillespie||The album featured compositions by Lalo Schifrin.|
|Glinkaiana, Medtneriana, and Scriabiniana||ballets||These three ballets were staged in the Soviet Union in the early 20th century, set to music by their respective namesakes: Mikhail Glinka, Nikolai Medtner and Alexander Scriabin.|
|Look up -ana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- "Ana suffix". cycfoundation.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "iana suffix". Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "Definition of ana | Dictionary.com". www.dictionary.com. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "Scaligerana". Warburg Institute.
- Sanford, Eva M. (January 1931). "Scaligerana". The Classical Journal. 26 (4): 279–286.
- Moore, C. A. 1927. "Miltoniana (1679–1741)". Modern Philology 24(3):321–39. JSTOR 433381.
- Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. .
- "Charles Camilleri CD Notes: Celestial Harmonies For Piano". Murray McLachlan. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Butterworth, Neil (2 October 2013). Dictionary of American Classical Composers. Taylor & Francis. p. 1996. ISBN 978-1-136-79023-2. Retrieved 14 June 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)