(84922) 2003 VS2

(84922) 2003 VS2 is a trans-Neptunian object discovered by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking program on 14 November 2003.[2] Like Pluto, it is in a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune[3][4] and is thus a plutino. Mike Brown's website lists it as "likely" a dwarf planet.[10] However, Brown assumed that 2003 VS2 was significantly larger than it really is, and analysis of its light-curve suggests that it may not be in the hydrostatic equilibrium.[11]

(84922) 2003 VS2
84922-2003vs2 hst.jpg
Hubble Space Telescope image of 2003 VS2 taken in 2005
Discovered byNEAT (644)
Discovery date14 November 2003[1]
(84922) 2003 VS2
Orbital characteristics[1][3]
Epoch 13 January 2016 (JD 2457400.5)
Uncertainty parameter 3
Observation arc8830 days (24.18 yr)
Earliest precovery date17 September 1991
Aphelion42.413 AU (6.3449 Tm)
Perihelion36.456 AU (5.4537 Tm)
39.435 AU (5.8994 Tm)
247.64 yr (90451.3 d)
4.75 km/s
0° 0m 14.328s / day
Physical characteristics
 × (531+17.6
 × (494.6+53.2
Mean diameter
  • 548.3+29.5
  • 523.0+35.1
Mean density
7.4175285±0.00001 h[7]
7.41±0.02 h[8]
Temperature≈44 K

Orbit and rotationEdit

Like Pluto, (84922) 2003 VS2 is locked in the 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Neptune, although its orbit is both less inclined and significantly less eccentric than Pluto's.[1]

(84922) 2003 VS2 has a significant light-curve amplitude of 0.21±0.01. The most likely value of the rotation period is 7.41±0.02 h.[8]

Physical characteristicsEdit

(84922) 2003 VS2 has a moderately red surface with a moderately red color indices B−V=0.93, V−R=0.59.[12] Its geometrical albedo is about 0.13.[5]

In 2007, its diameter was initially estimated by the Spitzer Space Telescope at 725±200 km.[13] However, in 2012, this was reduced to 523.0+35.1
after new Herschel Space Telescope observations.[6] In 2019, 2003 VS2 was found to be ellipsoidal in shape based on stellar occultations that occurred in 2013 and 2014;[5] the light curve derived from the occultations suggests that this plutino is not in hydrostatic equilibrium and hence not a dwarf planet.[14] The dimensions of 2003 VS2 are estimated at 627.6 km × 531 km × 494.6 km, with a volume-equivalent diameter 548.3+29.5
.[5] 2003 VS2 has no known satellite that can be used to directly determine its mass, but assuming a density of 1 g/cm3, typical of mid size TNO's,[15] gives a mass estimate of about 7.5×1019 kg.

2003 VS2 (apparent magnitude 19.8) as viewed with a 24" telescope
Colours of the TNOs plus Phoebe, Pholus, Triton and Mars. Mars and Triton are not to scale.

See alsoEdit

  • Sedna, another large trans-Neptunian object discovered the same day (14 November 2003)


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 84922 (2003 VS2)" (2008-02-05 last obs). Retrieved 7 April 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G. (16 November 2003). "MPEC 2003-W02 : 2003 VS2". IAU Minor Planet Center. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 6 January 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ a b c Buie, Marc W. (5 February 2008). "Orbit Fit and Astrometric record for 84922". SwRI (Space Science Department). Retrieved 23 July 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ a b "MPEC 2006-X45 : Distant Minor Planets". Minor Planet Center & Tamkin Foundation Computer Network. 21 December 2006. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Benedetti-Rossi, Gustavo; Santos-Sanz, P.; Ortiz, J. L.; Assafin, M.; Sicardy, B.; Morales, N. (2019). "The trans-Neptunian object (84922) 2003 VS2 through stellar occultations". The Astronomical Journal. 158 (4). arXiv:1908.06645. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab3b05.
  6. ^ a b c Mommert, Michael; Harris, A. W.; Kiss, C.; Pál, A.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, T. G.; Peixinho, N.; Lellouch, E.; Szalai, N.; Henry, F.; Duffard, R.; Fornasier, S.; Hartogh, P.; Mueller, M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Protopapa, S.; Rengel, M.; Thirouin, A. (May 2012). "TNOs are cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region—V. Physical characterization of 18 Plutinos using Herschel-PACS observations". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 541: A93. arXiv:1202.3657. Bibcode:2012A&A...541A..93M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118562.
  7. ^ a b Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Groussin, O.; Lacerda, P.; Muller, T.G.; Ortiz, J.L.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Stansberry, J.; Duffard, R.; Fornasier, S.; Jorda, L.; Thirouin, A. (August 2017). ""TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region XII. Thermal light curves of Haumea, 2003 VS2 and 2003 AZ84 with Herschel/PACS". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 604 (A95): 19. arXiv:1705.09117. Bibcode:2017A&A...604A..95S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201630354.
  8. ^ a b Sheppard, Scott S. (August 2007). "Light Curves of Dwarf Plutonian Planets and other Large Kuiper Belt Objects: Their Rotations, Phase Functions, and Absolute Magnitudes". The Astronomical Journal. 134 (2): 787–798. arXiv:0704.1636. Bibcode:2007AJ....134..787S. doi:10.1086/519072.
  9. ^ "AstDys (84922) 2003VS2 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ Brown, Michael E. "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? (updates daily)". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 31 August 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. ^ Tancredi, Gonzalo (2009). "Physical and dynamical characteristics of icy "dwarf planets" (plutoids)". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium S263. 5: 173–185. Bibcode:2010IAUS..263..173T. doi:10.1017/S1743921310001717. (Dwarf Planet & Plutoid Headquarters)
  12. ^ Tegler, Stephen C. (1 February 2007). "Kuiper Belt Object Magnitudes and Surface Colors". Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  13. ^ Stansberry, John; Grundy, Will; Brown, Mike; Cruikshank, Dale; Spencer, John; Trilling, David; Margot, Jean-Luc (2008). "Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from Spitzer Space Telescope" (PDF). In Barucci, M. Antonietta; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Cruikshank, Dale P. (eds.). The Solar System Beyond Neptune. University of Arizona press. pp. 161–179. arXiv:astro-ph/0702538. Bibcode:2008ssbn.book..161S. ISBN 978-0-8165-2755-7.
  14. ^ Benedetti-Rossi, Gustavo; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Assafin, Marcelo; Sicardy, Bruno; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Braga-Ribas, Felipe (2019). "Three Stellar Occultations by the Plutino Object (84922) 2003 VS2". Epsc-DPS Joint Meeting 2019. 2019: EPSC-DPS2019-435. Bibcode:2019EPSC...13..435B.
  15. ^ Grundy, W.M.; Noll, K.S.; Buie, M.W.; Benecchi, S.D.; Ragozzine, D.; Roe, H.G. (2019). "The mutual orbit, mass, and density of transneptunian binary Gǃkúnǁ'hòmdímà (229762 2007 UK126)". Icarus. 334: 30–38. Bibcode:2019Icar..334...30G. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2018.12.037.

External linksEdit