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(143651) 2003 QO104, provisional designation 2003 QO104, is a stony asteroid, slow rotator and suspected tumbler on a highly eccentric orbit, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Amor and Apollo group, respectively. It was discovered on 31 August 2003, by astronomers of the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking program at the Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii, United States.[1] The Q-type asteroid has a rotation period of 114.4 hours and possibly an elongated shape. It measures approximately 2.3 kilometers (1.4 miles) in diameter and belongs the largest potentially hazardous asteroids known to exist.[14]

(143651) 2003 QO104
Discovery [1]
Discovered byNEAT
Discovery siteHaleakala Obs.
Discovery date31 August 2003
Designations
MPC designation(143651) 2003 QO104
2003 QO104
NEO · PHA[1][2]
Apollo[2] · Amor[1]
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc36.55 yr (13,349 d)
Aphelion3.2551 AU
Perihelion1.0151 AU
2.1351 AU
Eccentricity0.5246
3.12 yr (1,140 d)
297.32°
0° 18m 57.24s / day
Inclination11.608°
58.224°
183.53°
Earth MOID0.0042 AU (1.6362 LD)
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
1.88 km (calculated)[3]
2.29±0.54 km[4]
2.31 km[5]
113.3±0.1 h[6]
114±3 h[7]
114.4±0.1 h[8][a]
0.13[5]
0.137±0.140[4]
0.14±0.12[9]
0.20 (assumed)[3]
Q[10] · S (assumed)[3]
B–V = 0.903±0.008[11]
V–R = 0.454±0.011[11] 
V–I = 0.797±0.019[11]
B–V = 0.880±0.020[12]
V–R = 0.450±0.020[12]
16.0[2][3][5]
16.48±0.43[13]

Contents

Orbit and classificationEdit

2003 QO104 is a member of the Apollo group of asteroids, which are Earth-crossing asteroids. They are the largest group of near-Earth objects with approximately 10 thousand known members. As it just grazes the orbit of Earth, the Minor Planet Center (MPC), groups it to the non-Earth crossing Amor asteroids.[1]

It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.015–3.3 AU once every 3 years and 1 month (1,140 days; semi-major axis of 2.14 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.52 and an inclination of 12° with respect to the ecliptic.[2] The body's observation arc begins with a precovery taken at the Siding Spring Observatory on in July 1981, more than 18 years prior to its official discovery observation at Haleakala.[1]

Close approachesEdit

The asteroid has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance of 0.0042 AU (628,000 km; 390,000 mi), which corresponds to 1.6 lunar distances and makes it a potentially hazardous asteroid due to its sufficiently large size.[2] On the Torino Scale, this object was rated level 1 in early October 2003,[15] and removed on 13 October 2003.[16]

On 18 May 1985, it passed Earth at a nominal distance of 0.00709 AU (2.76 LD) which translates into 1,060,648 km (659,000 mi) and made another approach in June 2009 at a much larger distance of 37 LD.[17] In 2034, 2037 and 2062, it will pass Earth at a distance of 0.18 AU, 0.44 AU and 0.045 AU, respectively. It frequently approaches Jupiter at 1.7–2.0 AU as well.[17]

History of close approaches of large near-Earth objects since 1908 (A)
PHA Date Approach distance (lunar dist.) Abs.
mag

(H)
Diameter (C)
(m)
Ref (D)
Nomi-
nal(B)
Mini-
mum
Maxi-
mum
(33342) 1998 WT24 1908-12-16 3.542 3.537 3.547 17.9 556–1795 data
(458732) 2011 MD5 1918-09-17 0.911 0.909 0.913 17.9 556–1795 data
(7482) 1994 PC1 1933-01-17 2.927 2.927 2.928 16.8 749–1357 data
69230 Hermes 1937-10-30 1.926 1.926 1.927 17.5 668–2158 data
69230 Hermes 1942-04-26 1.651 1.651 1.651 17.5 668–2158 data
(137108) 1999 AN10 1946-08-07 2.432 2.429 2.435 17.9 556–1795 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 1956-12-16 3.523 3.523 3.523 17.9 556–1795 data
(163243) 2002 FB3 1961-04-12 4.903 4.900 4.906 16.4 1669–1695 data
(192642) 1999 RD32 1969-08-27 3.627 3.625 3.630 16.3 1161–3750 data
(143651) 2003 QO104 1981-05-18 2.761 2.760 2.761 16.0 1333–4306 data
2017 CH1 1992-06-05 4.691 3.391 6.037 17.9 556–1795 data
(170086) 2002 XR14 1995-06-24 4.259 4.259 4.260 18.0 531–1714 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 2001-12-16 4.859 4.859 4.859 17.9 556–1795 data
4179 Toutatis 2004-09-29 4.031 4.031 4.031 15.30 2440–2450 data
2014 JO25 2017-04-19 4.573 4.573 4.573 17.8 582–1879 data
(137108) 1999 AN10 2027-08-07 1.014 1.010 1.019 17.9 556–1795 data
(35396) 1997 XF11 2028-10-26 2.417 2.417 2.418 16.9 881–2845 data
(154276) 2002 SY50 2071-10-30 3.415 3.412 3.418 17.6 714–1406 data
(164121) 2003 YT1 2073-04-29 4.409 4.409 4.409 16.2 1167–2267 data
(385343) 2002 LV 2076-08-04 4.184 4.183 4.185 16.6 1011–3266 data
(52768) 1998 OR2 2079-04-16 4.611 4.611 4.612 15.8 1462–4721 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 2099-12-18 4.919 4.919 4.919 17.9 556–1795 data
(85182) 1991 AQ 2130-01-27 4.140 4.139 4.141 17.1 1100 data
314082 Dryope 2186-07-16 3.709 2.996 4.786 17.5 668–2158 data
(137126) 1999 CF9 2192-08-21 4.970 4.967 4.973 18.0 531–1714 data
(290772) 2005 VC 2198-05-05 1.951 1.791 2.134 17.6 638–2061 data
(A) List includes near-Earth approaches of less than 5 lunar distances (LD) of objects with H brighter than 18.
(B) Nominal geocentric distance from the Earth's center to the object's center (earth radius≈6400 km).
(C) Diameter: estimated, theoretical mean-diameter based on H and albedo range between X and Y.
(D) Reference: data source from the JPL SBDB, with AU converted into LD (1 AU≈390 LD)
(E) Color codes:   unobserved at close approach   observed during close approach   upcoming approaches

Physical characteristicsEdit

2003 QO104 has been characterized as an uncommon Q-type asteroid,[10] that falls into the larger stony S-complex.[3]

Slow rotator and tumblerEdit

Several rotational lightcurve of this asteroid were obtained from photometric observations during its close approach to the Earth in 2009.[6][7][8] Analysis of the best-rated lightcurve – obtained by Brian Warner at his Palmer Divide Observatory in collaboration with Robert Stephens and Albino Carbognani – gave a well-defined rotation period of 114.4 hours with a high brightness amplitude of 1.60 magnitude (U=3), which is indicative of an elongated shape.[8][a] With a period of more than 100 hours, 2003 QO104 is a slow rotator as most asteroids typically rotate every 2 to 20 hours once around their axis. The asteroid also shows several characteristics of a non-principal axis-rotation, which is commonly known as tumbling.[7][8]

This asteroid has also been studied by radar at the Goldstone and Arecibo observatories by Lance Benner and Mike Nolan.[8][b]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to post-cryogenic observations made by the Spitzer Telescope during the ExploreNEOs survey, this asteroid measures 2.29 and 2.31 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.13 and 0.14,[4][5][9] while the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for stony asteroids of 0.20 and calculates a diameter of 1.88 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 16.0.[3]

NamingEdit

This minor planet was numbered by the MPC on 5 December 2006 (M.P.C. 58189).[18] As of 2018, it has not been named.[1]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of (143651) 2003 QO104 by Brian Warner at the Palmer Divide Observatory. Rotation period 114.4±0.1 hours and a brightness amplitude of 1.60±0.03 mag. Quality code of 3. Summary figures at the LCDB and the observatory's website
  2. ^ Radiometric observations of (143651) 2003 QO104 at the Arecibo Observatory by Mike Nolan R2421 in May 2009, and at the Goldstone Observatory by Lance Benner Planning in June 2009

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "143651 (2003 QO104)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 143651 (2003 QO104)" (2018-01-26 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (143651)". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Mueller, Michael; Delbo', M.; Hora, J. L.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; et al. (April 2011). "ExploreNEOs. III. Physical Characterization of 65 Potential Spacecraft Target Asteroids". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (4): 9. Bibcode:2011AJ....141..109M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/4/109. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; et al. (September 2010). "ExploreNEOs. I. Description and First Results from the Warm Spitzer Near-Earth Object Survey". The Astronomical Journal. 140 (3): 770–784. Bibcode:2010AJ....140..770T. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/770. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  6. ^ a b Birtwhistle, Peter (October 2009). "Lightcurves for Five Close Approach Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (4): 186–187. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36..186B. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Koehn, Bruce W.; Bowell, Edward G.; Skiff, Brian A.; Sanborn, Jason J.; McLelland, Kyle P.; Pravec, Petr; et al. (October 2014). "Lowell Observatory Near-Earth Asteroid Photometric Survey (NEAPS) - 2009 January through 2009 June". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (4): 286–300. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..286K. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e Warner, Brian D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Carbognani, Albino (October 2009). "Analysis of the Slow Rotator (143651) 2003 QO104". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (4): 179–180. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36..179W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  9. ^ a b Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Benner, L. A. M.; et al. (September 2011). "ExploreNEOs. V. Average Albedo by Taxonomic Complex in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population". The Astronomical Journal. 142 (3): 12. Bibcode:2011AJ....142...85T. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/142/3/85. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  10. ^ a b Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbó, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael (January 2014). "Physical characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed near-Earth objects" (PDF). Icarus. 228: 217–246. arXiv:1310.2000. Bibcode:2014Icar..228..217T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.10.004. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Ye, Q.-z. (February 2011). "BVRI Photometry of 53 Unusual Asteroids" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 141 (2): 8. arXiv:1011.0133. Bibcode:2011AJ....141...32Y. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/2/32. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  12. ^ a b Betzler, Alberto S.; Noaves, Alberto B.; Santos, Antonio C. P.; Sobral, Edvaldo G. (July 2010). "Photometric Observations of the Near-Earth Asteroids 1999 AP10 2000 TO64, 2000 UJ1, 2000 XK44, 2001 MZ7, 2003 QO104, 2005 RQ6, 2005 WJ56, and 2009 UN3". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 37 (3): 95–97. Bibcode:2010MPBu...37...95B. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  13. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results" (PDF). Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  14. ^ "List of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  15. ^ "Major News about Minor Objects (2003 QO104)". hohmanntransfer. 27 December 2003. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  16. ^ "NEOs Removed from Impact Risks Tables". Near Earth Object Program. NASA. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  17. ^ a b "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 143651 (2003 QO104)". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  18. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 April 2018.

External linksEdit