Taj al-Din al-Subki

Abū Naṣr Tāj al-Dīn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb ibn ʿAlī ibn ʻAbd al-Kāfī al-Subkī (تاج الدين عبد الوهاب بن علي بن عبد الكافي السبكي), or Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī (تاج الدين السبكي) or simply Ibn al-Subki (1327-1370) was a leading Islamic scholar, a faqīh, a muḥaddith and a historian from the celebrated al-Subkī family of Shāfiʿī ʿulamā, during the Mamluk era.[2][4][5]

Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī (تاج الدين السبكي)
TitleShaykh al-Islam
Qadi al-Qudah (chief judge)
Born(1327-07-03)July 3, 1327 (AH 727/8)
DiedJuly 3, 1370(1370-07-03) (aged 43)
Cairo, Egypt
EraMamluk Sultanate
RegionLower Egypt
Main interest(s)Islamic theology, Hadith, Islamic jurisprudence
Muslim leader
  • Ahmad ibn Qasim al-Buni


Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī was born and educated in Cairo, Egypt, in 1327 (727 AH).[1] He was first educated by his father, the celebrated scholar Taqī al-Dīn al-Subkī, an influential figure in the umma.[4] At age 11 years he joined his father in Damascus, where he studied under the leading scholars of his day, such as the historian al-Dhahabi and the jurist Ibn al-Naqīb.[4] Aged 18 he became a mudarris (professor) and khaṭīb at the Umayyad Mosque. In his late twenties he began to assist his father as qāḍī (Chief judge) of Syria, and on his father's retirement to Cairo in 1354, he replaced him as qāḍī of Damascus. He also held the title Mufti[4][6] In 1357 he was removed from office but reinstated several months later. In 1368 he was jailed for misappropriation of funds. Following a petition by friends, he was released after 80 days and seems to have been exonerated. He died of the plague in 1370 (771 AH) aged 44 years.[4] [1]


  • Ṭabaqāt al-Šāfiʻiyyaẗ— Kubrā, Wusṭā wa Ṣughrā (Large, Medium and Concise); Biographical dictionary of the scholars of the Shāfi’ī legal school; based on the Tabyīn kadhib al-Muftarī fī mā nusiba ilā al-Imām Abī al-Ḥasan al- Ash’arī of Ibn ’Asākir; (Cairo: Maṭbaʻaẗ al-Ḥusayniyyaẗ al-Miṣriyyaẗ, 1906)[2]
  • Kitāb Mu'īd an-Ni'am wa-Mubīd an-Niqām ("The restorer of favours and the restrainer of chastisements"); Arabic text with introduction and notes by David Vilhelm Myhrman: treats 113 trades, professions and offices of the author's own time, in the light of how their exponents should behave in order to recover God's favour. (English translation: Luzac & Co., London, 1908).[2]
  • Kitāb al-Ashbāh wa-l-Naẓāʾir, a legal digest. Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī, al-Ashbāh wa-l-Naẓāʾir, ed. by Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd and ʿAlī Muḥammad ʿIwaḍ, 2 vols. (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīya, 1991)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Brockelmann 1902, p. 89.
  2. ^ a b c d e Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P.; Lecomte, G. (1997). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. IX (San-Sze) (New ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 744. ISBN 9004104224.
  3. ^ Adang, Camilla; Fierro, Maribel; Schmidtke, Sabine (2012). Ibn Hazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker (Handbook of Oriental Studies) (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1; The Near and Middle East). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 383. ISBN 978-90-04-23424-6.
  4. ^ a b c d e Berkey, Jonathan P. (2010). Saleh, Marlis J. (ed.). "Al-Subkī and His Women". Mamluk Studies Review. University of Chicago. 14: 8.
  5. ^ Schacht & Bosworth 1995, p. 744.
  6. ^ Smith, Margaret (2008). Al-Ghazali the Mystic. Archetype. p. 152. ISBN 978-1901383164.