Ṅa is the fifth consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, It is derived from the Brahmi letter ng after having gone through the Gupta letter Gupta allahabad ng.svg.

Devanagari Bengali Gurmukhi Gujarati Oriya
Ṅa Ṅa Ṅa
Tamil Telugu Kannada Malayalam Sinhala
Thai Lao Tibetan Burmese Khmer
Baybayin Hanunoo Buhid Tagbanwa Lontara
Balinese Sundanese Limbu Tai Le New Tai Lue
Lepcha Saurashtra Rejang Javanese Cham
Tai Tham Tai Viet Kayah Li Phags-pa Siddhaṃ
Siddhaṃ 'Nga'
Mahajani Khojki Khudabadi Syloti Meitei
- 𑈍 𑊿 -
Modi Tirhuta Kaithi Sora Grantha
𑘒 𑒓 𑂑 𑃗 𑌙
Chakma Sharada Takri Kharoshthi Brahmi
𑄋 𑆕 𑚎 - Brahmi 'Nga'
Phonemic representation: /ŋ/
IAST transliteration: nga
ISCII code point: B7 (183)

Āryabhaṭa numerationEdit

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of ङ are:[1]

  • [ŋə] = 5 (५)
  • ङि [ŋɪ] = 500 (५००)
  • ङु [ŋʊ] = 50,000 (५० ०००)
  • ङृ [ŋri] = 5,000,000 (५० ०० ०००)
  • ङॢ [ŋlə] = 5×108 (५०)
  • ङे [ŋe] = 5×1010 (५०१०)
  • ङै [ŋɛː] = 5×1012 (५०१२)
  • ङो [ŋoː] = 5×1014 (५०१४)
  • ङौ [ŋɔː] = 5×1016 (५०१६)

Devanagari scriptEdit

Ṅa () is the fifth consonant of the Devanagari abugida. In all languages, ङ is pronounced as [ŋə] or [ŋ] when appropriate. Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter ઙ and the Modi letter 𑘒.

Bengali scriptEdit

Ṅô () is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

Gujarati scriptEdit

Ṅa () is the fifth consonant of the Gujarati script. It is derived from 16th century Devanagari letter Ṅa (ङ) with the top bar (shirorekha) removed.

Gurmukhi scriptEdit

Ṅaṅā [ŋɑŋːɑ̃] () is the tenth letter of the Gurmukhi alphabet. Its name is [ŋɑŋːɑ̃] and is pronounced as /ŋ/ when used in words. It is derived from the Laṇḍā letter ṅa, and ultimately from the Brahmi ṅa. Gurmukhi ṅaṅā does not have a special pairin or addha (reduced) form for making conjuncts, and in modern Punjabi texts do not take a half form or halant to indicate the bare consonant /ŋ/, although Gurmukhi Sanskrit texts may use an explicit halant. Ṅaṅā is rarely used. It cannot begin a syllable or be placed between two consonants, and occurs most often as an allophone of /n/ before specific consonant phonemes.

Thai scriptEdit

Ngo ngu () is the seventh letter of the Thai script. It falls under the low class of Thai consonants. In IPA, ngo ngu is pronounced as [ŋ] at the beginning of a syllable and at the end of a syllable. Unlike many Indic scripts, Thai consonants do not form conjunct ligatures, and use the pinthuan explicit virama with a dot shape—to indicate bare consonants. In the acrophony of the Thai script, ngu (งู) means ‘snake’. Ngo ngu corresponds to the Sanskrit character ‘ङ’.

Javanese scriptEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  • Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6
  • Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  • B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9
  • Fleet, J. F. (January 1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823.
  • Fleet, J. F. (1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 109–126. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823.