Škoda 10 cm K10

The Škoda 10 cm K10 was a 100 mm (3.9-inch) naval gun of the Austro-Hungarian Navy used as tertiary armament on semi-dreadnought battleships and as primary armament on scout cruisers and destroyers during World War I. After World War I, variants of the Škoda 10 cm K10 were widely produced in Italy as the 100/47[note 1] series of guns, which served in a number of roles, on a wide variety of ships, with a number of navies.

Škoda 10 cm K10
Minizini-KrasnyyKavkaz2.jpg
A twin "Minizini" mount aboard the Soviet cruiser Krasnyi Kavkaz
TypeNaval gun
Dual-purpose gun
Coastal artillery
Anti-aircraft gun
Place of originAustria-Hungary
Service history
Used byAustria-Hungary
Italy
France
Spain
Sweden
Soviet Union
WarsWorld War I
Spanish Civil War
World War II
Production history
DesignerSkoda
Designed1907
ManufacturerSkoda
Produced1910
VariantsŠkoda 10 cm K07
Škoda 10 cm K11
OTO 100/47
Specifications
Mass2,020 kilograms (4,450 lb)
Barrel length4.985 meters (16.35 ft) 50 caliber

ShellFixed QF ammunition
Shell weight13.75 kilograms (30.3 lb)
Caliber100 millimeters (3.9 in)[1]
BreechHorizontal sliding breech block
ElevationAustria-Hungary: -4° to +18°

Italian: -5° to +85°

Russian: -5° to +78°
Traverse360°[2]
Rate of fire8-10 rpm[1]
Muzzle velocity880 meters per second (2,900 ft/s)[1]
Maximum firing rangeAustria-Hungary: 11 km (6.8 mi) at +14°

Italian: 15.2 km (9.4 mi)
at 45°

AA Ceiling: 10 km (33,000 ft) at 80°[1]

Škoda 10 cm K10 HistoryEdit

The origins of the Škoda 10 cm K10 began with the earlier K07 developed in 1907 at the Škoda works in Pilsen. When the gun was put into production in 1910 it was renamed the Škoda 10 cm K10 and entered service aboard the Radetzky-class battleships in 20 single mount casemates amidships. The K11 model soon followed the K10 into service aboard the cruiser SMS Admiral Spaun, the Novara-class cruisers and the Tátra-class destroyers of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in low-angle, single gun turrets. The main difference between the various models was their mounts, traverse and elevation.[3] After World War I SMS Radetzky, SMS Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand and SMS Zrínyi were ceded to Italy and scrapped between 1920 and 1926. SMS Admiral Spaun was ceded to the British and sold to an Italian company for scrapping in 1922. The Novara and Tatar classes proved ideal for service in the Adriatic during the First World War and the surviving units were ceded as war reparations to Italy and France. SMS Helgoland (renamed Brindisi) and SMS Saida (renamed Venezia) served in the Italian Navy until scrapped in 1937, while SMS Novara (renamed Thionville) served in the French Navy until scrapped in 1942. Three of the Tátra-class destroyers, Triglav II, Lika II, and Uzsok, were ceded to Italy as the Fasana class and Dukla was ceded to France. These ships were little used and re-rated as torpedo boats in 1929, with the last ships being scrapped in 1936. In 1937 the salvaged 10 cm K10's were landed and assigned to coastal artillery. At the outbreak of World War II, 41 guns were still in service.[4]

Škoda 10 cm K10 descriptionEdit

The Škoda 10 cm K10 was built with an A tube, jacket and a breech ring screwed to both the A tube and jacket. It had a horizontal sliding breech block and fired fixed (one part) ammunition.

OTO 100/47Edit

The Italian Navy were impressed with the Škoda 10 cm K10s and in 1924 a copy of the gun was ordered from the Italian firm OTO Melara which spawned a large family of 100/47 cannons that were widely used.[2] A number of different models were produced on different mountings for a variety of ship types.

  • OTO Mod. 1924, Mod. 1927 and Mod. 1928 100/47 - These guns were virtual reproductions of the Škoda 10 cm K10, but with loose liners. The gun was built with A tube, jacket and loose liner with a breech ring that screwed to both the A tube and jacket. The breech block was a horizontal sliding type and it fired fixed ammunition. These AA guns were mounted in nearly all heavy and light cruisers of the Italian Navy during World War II. The most widely used model was the OTO Mod. 1928 gun in twin-gun Mod. 1928 mounts. These shielded twin mounts had both guns in a common cradle that allowed -5° to 85° elevation. The mounts had adjustable trunnions which were automatically raised by electric power as the guns elevated. They had mechanized spring and rope rammers. The speed of movement for the mount was found to be too slow to follow fast moving aerial targets, particularly if the ship was rolling and was more suited to barrage fire. This mounting was designed by Comandante Minisini of the Regia Marina and were often referred to as Minisinis. The Soviet Union bought 10 of the Mod. 1928 mounts for their Admiral Nakhimov-class cruisers and their crews referred to them as Minizinis.[1]
  • OTO Mod. 1931, Mod. 1935 and Mod. 1937 100/47 - These guns had the same construction details as the Mod. 1928. These guns were in single, usually shielded, hand-worked, Mod. 1931 or Mod. 1937 mounts. These dual-purpose mounts were common on Italian torpedo-boats of World War II. The Mod. 1931 mounts had an elevation of -6° to +45°, which was later increased to -9° / +60° for the Mod. 1937 mounts. These simpler hand-worked mounts were considered adequate for their role.[1]
  • OTO Mod. 1931, Mod. 1935 and Mod. 1938 100/47 for Submarines - Same construction details as the earlier Mod. 1928, except the barrel was shortened to 4.94 m (16 ft 2 in). These guns were used in single, hand-worked, unshielded, pedestal-mounts. These guns were mounted on the majority of Italian submarines, except for the Micca and Calvi classes.[1]

Naval serviceEdit

Mounting Gun model Gun mount Weight Length Elevation Range Ship class
Low-Angle Single Mount Škoda 10 cm K10 & K11 Mod. 1910 2,020 kg 4.985 metres (16 ft 4.3 in) -4° / +18° 16,885 m Radetzky-class battleships[5] SMS Admiral Spaun,[6] Novara-class cruisers,[7] Tátra-class destroyers[8]
AA Twin mount OTO Mod. 1924 Mod. 1924 15,000 kg 4,985 mm -5° / +85° 15,240 m Trento-class cruisers[9]
OTO Mod. 1927 Mod. 1927 Pola (cruiser)[10]
OTO Mod. 1928 Mod. 1928 Admiral Nakhimov-class cruisers, Bolzano (cruiser),[11] Condottieri-class cruisers,[12] Conte di Cavour-class battleships,[13] San Giorgio (cruiser),[14] Zara-class cruisers[15]
Dual-purpose single mount OTO Mod. 1931 Mod. 1931 N/A 4,985 mm -6° / +45° 15,400 m Spica-class torpedo boats,[16] Spica-class torpedo boat Climene,[17] Spica-class torpedo boat Perseus[18]
OTO Mod. 1935 Mod. 1931 6,300 kg -9° / +60° Little used, replaced by Mod. 1937 mount
RM Mod. 1937 Mod. 1931 N/A Little used, replaced by Mod. 1937 mount
OTO Mod. 1937 Mod. 1937 6,800 kg Ariete-class torpedo boats,[19] Ciclone-class torpedo boats,[20] Gabbiano-class corvettes,[21] Orsa-class torpedo boats,[22] Spica-class torpedo boat Alcyone[23]
Submarine deck gun OTO Mod. 1931 Mod. 1938M 4,650 kg 4.940 m (16 ft 2.5 in) -5° / +35° 12,600 m Archimede-class submarines,[24] Argo-class submarines,[25] Glauco-class submarines[26]
OTO Mod. 1935 Adua-class submarines,[27] Perla-class submarines[28]
OTO Mod. 1938 Acciaio-class submarines,[29] Brin-class submarines,[30] Cagni-class submarines,[31] Flutto-class submarines,[32] Foca-class submarines,[33] Liuzzi-class submarines,[34] Marcello-class submarines,[35] Marconi-class submarines[36]

AmmunitionEdit

Ammunition was of Fixed QF type. The cartridge case was 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) long and with a 6.6 kg (15 lb) propellant charge weighed 26 kg (57 lb).

The gun was able to fire:

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In Italian nomenclature the first number indicates the caliber expressed in millimeters, the second the length in calibers. This second value is not 50 calibers because the Italians calculated the length of the barrel excluding the firing chamber.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Campbell, Naval Weapons of WWII, p.339-341.
  2. ^ a b DiGiulian, Tony. "Austria-Hungary 10 cm/50 (3.9") Skoda K10 and K11 - NavWeaps". navweaps.com.
  3. ^ Friedman, Norman (1 January 2011). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. pp. 291–292. ISBN 978-1848321007. OCLC 786178793.
  4. ^ "Le artiglierie italiane nella 2ª Guerra Mondiale". virgilio.it (in Italian).
  5. ^ Gogin, Ivan. "Erzhergog Franz Ferdinand battleships (1910-1911) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". Navypedia. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  6. ^ Gogin, Ivan. "Admiral Spaun scout cruiser (1910) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". Navypedia. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  7. ^ "Saida scout cruisers (1914-1915) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". navypedia.org.
  8. ^ "Tátra destroyers (1913-1914) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". Navypedia.
  9. ^ "Trento heavy cruisers (1928 - 1929) - Regia Marina (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  10. ^ "Zara heavy cruisers (1931 - 1932) - Regia Marina (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  11. ^ "Bolzano heavy cruiser (1933) - Regia Marina (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  12. ^ "Condottieri type 1st group light cruisers (Alberto di Giussano, 1931 - 1932)". Navypedia.
  13. ^ "Giulio Cesare battleships (1914 - 1915)". Navypedia.
  14. ^ "San Giorgio armoured cruisers (1910 - 1911)". navypedia.org.
  15. ^ Gogin, Ivan. "Zara heavy cruisers (1931 - 1932)". Navypedia.
  16. ^ "Spica torpedo boats (Spica group, 1935), Climene group (1936 - 1937), Perseo group (1936), Alcione group (1938) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  17. ^ "Spica torpedo boats (Spica group, 1935), Climene group (1936 - 1937), Perseo group (1936), Alcione group (1938) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  18. ^ "Spica torpedo boats (Spica group, 1935), Climene group (1936 - 1937), Perseo group (1936), Alcione group (1938) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  19. ^ "Ariete torpedo boats (1943) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  20. ^ "CICLONE torpedo boats / destroyer escorts (1942-1943)". navypedia.org.
  21. ^ "Gabbiano corvettes (1942 - 1953) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  22. ^ "Pegaso torpedo boats / escort destroyers (1938) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  23. ^ "Spica torpedo boats (Spica group, 1935), Climene group (1936 - 1937), Perseo group (1936), Alcione group (1938) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  24. ^ "Archimede submarines (1934 - 1935) - Regia Marina (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  25. ^ Gogin, Ivan. "Argo medium submarines (1937)". Navypedia.
  26. ^ "Glauco submarines (1935) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  27. ^ "Adua submarines (1936 - 1938) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  28. ^ "Perla submarines (1936) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  29. ^ "Acciaio submarines (1941 - 1942) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  30. ^ "Brin submarines (1938 - 1939) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  31. ^ "Ammiraglio Cagni submarines (1941) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  32. ^ "Flutto submarines (1942 - 1943) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  33. ^ "Foca submarines (1937 - 1939) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  34. ^ "Console Generale Liuzzi submarines (1939 - 1940) - Regia Marina (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  35. ^ "Marcello (1938) and Comandante Cappellini (1939) submarines - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". navypedia.org.
  36. ^ "Guglielmo Marconi submarines (1940) - Regia Marina (Italy)". navypedia.org.

ReferencesEdit

  • Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.
  • Fraccaroli, Aldo (1970). Italian Warships of World War I. London, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-0105-3.
  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1848321007.

External linksEdit