Đodan graduated from the Faculty of Law at University of Zagreb in 1960. In 1965, Đodan obtained his doctorate from the Faculty of Economics, which is also located in Zagrab He served as a member of the presidency and economic secretary of Matica Hrvatska from 1967 until 1971.
Šime Đodan served in the Croatian parliament for two terms. His first term was from 1990 until 1992 and his second term extended from 1992 until 1995.
His political life was marked with controversial rhetoric, most infamously an August 1991 remark in Sinj about the Serbs having "smaller brains" and "pointy heads".