Shantideva (Sanskrit: Śāntideva; Chinese: 寂天; Tibetan: ཞི་བ་ལྷ།, THL: Zhiwa Lha; Mongolian: Шантидэва гэгээн; Vietnamese: Tịch Thiên) was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist monk and scholar at Nalanda. He was an adherent of the Madhyamaka philosophy of Nagarjuna.
The Zhansi Lun of the East Asian Mādhyamaka identifies two different individuals given the name "Shant inideva": their founder of the Avaivartika Sangha in the 6th century and a later Shantideva who studied at Nalanda in the 8th century and appears to be the source of the Tibetan biographies. Archaeological discoveries support this thesis. Two Tibetan sources of the life of Shantideva are the historians Buton Rinchen Drub and Tāranātha. Recent scholarship has brought to light a short Sanskrit life of Shantideva in a 14th-century Nepalese manuscript. An accessible account that follows the Butön closely can be found in Kunzang Pelden, The Nectar of Manjushri's speech.
Apparently he was one of those people who didn't show up for anything, never studying or coming to practice sessions. His fellow monks said that his three “realizations” were eating, sleeping, and shitting.
The Śikṣāsamuccaya (“Training Anthology”) is a prose work in nineteen chapters. It is organized as a commentary on twenty-seven short mnemonic verses known as the Śikṣāsamuccaya Kārikā. It consists primarily of quotations (of varying length) from sūtras, authoritative texts considered to be the word of the Buddha — generally those sūtras associated with Mahāyāna tradition, including the Samadhiraja Sutra.
Shantideva is particularly renowned as the author of the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra. A variety of English translations exist, sometimes glossed as "A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life" or "Entering the Path of Enlightenment." It is a long poem describing the process of enlightenment from the first thought to full buddhahood and is still studied by Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhists today.
An introduction to and commentary on the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra by the 14th Dalai Lama called A Flash of Lightning in the Dark of Night was printed in 1994. A commentary on the Patience chapter was provided by the Dalai Lama in Healing Anger (1997), and his commentaries on the Wisdom chapter can be found in Practicing Wisdom (2004). Kunzang Palden has written a commentary based on that given by Patrul Rinpoche, translated by the Padmakara Translation Group. Patrul Rinpoche was a wandering monk of great scholarship, who dedicated his life to the propagation of the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra.
- Rahsid, More Harunur (2012). "Deva Dynasty". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Bodhicaryāvatāra Historical Project Archived March 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- Pezzali, Amalia (1968), Śāntideva Mystjique buddhiste des VII et VIIIe siècles, Florence: Vallechi Edtore
- Shantideva (1997), The Way of the Bodhisattva, translated by the Padmakara Translation Group, Boston l: Shambala, ISBN 1-57062-253-1
- Kunzang Pelden (2007), The Nectar of Manjushri's Speech. A Detailed Commentary on Shantideva's Way of the Bodhisattva, Shambala Publications, p. 17, ISBN 978-1-59030-439-6
- "Cutting Ties: The Fruits of Solitude". Tricycle: The Buddhist Review. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Amod Lele, "Śāntideva", Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- The Way of the Bodhisattva: A Translation of the Bodhicharyavatara. Translated by the Padmakara Translation Group. Shambhala Publications. 2003. ISBN 1590300572.
- Kunzang Palden (2007), The Nectar of Manjushri's Speech. A Detailed Commentary on Shantideva's Way of the Bodhisattva, Shambala Publications, ISBN 978-1-59030-439-6
- Shantideva (1997), The Way of the Bodhisattva, translated by the Padmakara Translation Group, Boston: Shambala, ISBN 1-57062-253-1
- Shantideva (2002), Guide to the Bodhisattva's way of life : how to enjoy a life of great meaning and altruism, translation from Tibetan into English by Neil Elliot, Ulverston (UK); Glen Spey, N.Y.: Tharpa, ISBN 978-0-948006-89-0
- Pema Chödrön (2005), No Time to Lose: A Timely Guide to the Way of the Bodhisattva, commentary on Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Boston: Shambhala, ISBN 1-59030-135-8
- Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) (1994), A Flash of Lightning in the Dark of Night: A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Commentary on Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Boston: Shambhala, ISBN 0-87773-971-4
- Geshe Kelsang Gyatso (1980), Meaningful to Behold – The Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Ulverston (UK); Glen Spey, N.Y.: Tharpa, ISBN 0-948006-35-8
- Geshe Kelsang Gyatso (2005, US ed., 2007), How to Solve Our Human Problems, Tharpa Publications, ISBN 978-0-9789067-1-9 Check date values in:
- K. Crosby; A. Skilton (1996), The Bodhicaryāvatāra, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-282979-3
- S. Batchelor (1979), A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives
- Kunzang Pelden (2007), The Nectar of Manjushri's Speech. A Detailed Commentary on Shantideva's Way of the Bodhisattva, Shambala Publications, ISBN 978-1-59030-439-6
- Śāntideva, Cecil Bendall and W. H. D. Rouse (trans)(1922). Śikshā-samuccaya: a compendium of Buddhist doctrine, compiled by Śāntideva chiefly from earlier Mahāyāna Sūtras. London: Murray
- Of the progresse of the Bodhisattva: the bodhisattvamārga in the Śikṣāsamuccaya / Richard Mahoney (Oxford: Indica et Buddhica, 2016) ISBN 978-0-473-37538-6, 978-0-473-40931-9 &c.
- L. D. Barnett (trans) (1909 ). "The Path of light rendered for the first time into Engl. from the Bodhicharyāvatāra of Śānti-Deva: a manual of Mahā-yāna Buddhism, New York, Dutton
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- Śāntideva's Bodhisattva-caryāvatāra English translation; Readable HTML.
- Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Shantideva by Amod Lele
- Talk about Shantideva by Stephen Batchelor
- Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior, full unpublished translation of the Bodhicaryavatara by Alexander Berzin
- Commentary to Bodhicaryavatara by Patrul Rinpoche (in English )
- Śikṣāsamuccaya of Śāntideva: Sanskrit Buddhist text
- Works by or about Shantideva at Internet Archive
- Works by Shantideva at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)