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The grapheme Ř, ř (R with háček, example of Czech pronunciation: "řeka" (help·info)) is a letter used in alphabets of the Czech and Upper Sorbian languages. It was also used in a proposed orthography for the Silesian language. A similar consonant can also be found in some Norwegian dialects (around Narvik) and in Berber (especially in its Rif variety).
The Unicode glyphs are U+0158 Ř and U+0159 ř . Either can also be represented using the combining character U+030C ̌ COMBINING CARON.
History of Ř in CzechEdit
In Czech, the phoneme ř originated in Old Czech in the 13th century. The oldest written documents from which it can be inferred date to 1237. Three theories exist explaining the origin of the phoneme. First, it could have arisen from the consonant r preceding the vowels e, í, i. The second theory posits that ř evolved from the phoneme r followed by the Proto-Slavic vowel yer (ь). Finally, it is possible that the phoneme evolved from the Proto-Slavic combination of r and the nasal ę, or from the cluster rj. For example, r’epa > řepa, r’ěka > řěka > řeka, tr’i > tři, zvěr’ь > zvěr’ > zvěř, kur’ę > kur’ě > kuřě > kuře, morje > mor’e > moře.
In Czech it is used to denote [r̝], a raised alveolar non-sonorant trill. Its manner of articulation is similar to other alveolar trills but the tongue is raised; it is partially fricative. It is usually voiced, [r̝], but it also has a voiceless allophone [r̝̊] occurring in the vicinity of voiceless consonants or at the end of a word.
In Upper Sorbian, it denotes the voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ].
In Rif-Berber, it is used for a sound between /l/ and /r/.
Czech: “Třista třicet tři stříbrných stříkaček stříkalo přes třista třicet tři stříbrných střech.”
Phonetically: [ˈtr̝̊ɪsta ˈtr̝̊ɪt͡sɛt ˈtr̝̊ɪ ˈstr̝̊iːbr̩niːx ˈstr̝̊iːkat͡ʃɛk ˈstr̝̊iːkalo pr̝̊ɛs ˈtr̝̊ɪsta ˈtr̝̊ɪt͡sɛt ˈtr̝̊ɪ ˈstr̝̊iːbr̩niːx ˈstr̝̊ɛx].
English: “333 silver fire hoses squirted over 333 silver roofs”.
|Unicode name||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R WITH CARON||LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH CARON|
|UTF-8||197 152||C5 98||197 153||C5 99|
|Numeric character reference||Ř||Ř||ř||ř|