Ōan (応安), also romanized as Ō-an, was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Jōji and before Eiwa. This period spanned the years from February 1368 through February 1375. The emperors in Kyoto were Emperor Go-Kōgon (後光厳天皇, Go-Kōgon-tennō) and Emperor Go-En'yū (後円融天皇, Go-En'yū-tennō) The Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Chōkei (長慶天皇, Chōkei-tennō).
During the Meiji period, an Imperial decree dated March 3, 1911 established that the legitimate reigning monarchs of this period were the direct descendants of Emperor Go-Daigo through Emperor Go-Murakami, whose Southern Court (南朝, nanchō) had been established in exile in Yoshino, near Nara.
Until the end of the Edo period, the militarily superior pretender-Emperors supported by the Ashikaga shogunate had been mistakenly incorporated in Imperial chronologies despite the undisputed fact that the Imperial Regalia were not in their possession.
Change of eraEdit
- 1368, also called Ōan gannen (応安元年): The new era name was created to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Jōji 7.
Events of the Ōan eraEdit
- 1368 (Ōan 1): The Southern Court proclaims Emperor Chōkei's succession to the vacancy created by the death of Emperor Go-Murakami.
- 1369 (Ōan 2): Kusunoki Masanori defects to Ashikaga.
- 1370 (Ōan 3): Imagawa Sadayo sent to subdue Kyūshū.
- 1371 (Ōan 4): Attempts to arrange truce.
- 1373-1406 (Ōan 6 – Ōei 13): Embassies between China and Japan.
- 1374 (Ōan 7): En'yū ascends northern throne.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Ō-an" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 731; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 310-312.
- Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring modernity: concepts of nature in Japanese political ideology, p. 199 n57, citing Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. p. 140-147.
- Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: The "Tokushi Yoron", p. 329.
- Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: The Tokushi Yoron. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 978-0-7022-1485-1
- Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-21160-8; OCLC 419870136
- Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
- Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring Modernity: Concepts of Nature in Japanese Political Ideology. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22854-2; OCLC 47916285
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection