İkdam (Turkish: Effort) was a newspaper in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey. During its lifetime it became the most popular newspaper in Istanbul.[2]

İkdams front page on 4 November 1918, after the Three Pashas fled the country during the final days of WWI, reads: "Their response to eliminate the Armenian problem was to attempt the elimination of the Armenians themselves."[1]

Ahmet Cevdet Oran established the paper in 1894, and the first issue appeared on 23 September.[3] It initially advocated for Turkism, but held a critical attitude towards the Committee of Union and Progress after the Young Turk Revolution had occurred. Yakup Karaosmanoğlu was a journalist with İkdam during the Turkish War of Independence.[4] Ikdam was one of the publications which supported the foreign mandate and opposed the national struggle led by Mustafa Kemal in Anatolia.[5]

Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey the paper objected the policies of the Turkish government, including making Ankara the capital city instead of Istanbul as well as the presidency of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[3] Partly due to its dissident approach the ownership of the paper was changed, and it became an asset of Ali Naci Karacan.[3]

The paper was disestablished in 1928.[2]


  1. ^ Raffi Bedrosyan (7 January 2016). "The Implications of Turkey's Renewed War on the Kurds". Armenian Weekly.
  2. ^ a b Selcuk Aksin Somel. (2003). Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810866064, 9780810866065. p. 128-129.
  3. ^ a b c Eminalp Malkoç (2008). "The 1927 Republican People's Party Congress and Mustafa Kemal's Great Speech From the Perspective of İkdam Newspaper". International Review of Turkology. 1 (2): 41. ISSN 1308-0105.
  4. ^ Edebiyatogretmeni.net - Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, Google translated
  5. ^ Aysun Akan (July 2011). "A Critical Analysis of the Turkish Press Discourse against Non-Muslims: A Case Analysis of the Newspaper Coverage of the 1942 Wealth Tax". Middle Eastern Studies. 47 (4): 609. doi:10.1080/00263206.2011.589987. JSTOR 23054327. S2CID 153653954.

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to İkdam at Wikimedia Commons