In Hinduism, Ādityás (Sanskrit: आदित्य, romanizedĀdityá, Sanskrit pronunciation: [aːdɪtjɐ]), meaning "of Aditi", refers to the offspring of the goddess Aditi and her husband the sage Kashyapa.[1] The name Ādityá, in the singular, is taken to refer to the sun god Surya.

MantraAum Adityebhyah Namah
MountHorses and many others
ParentsAditi & Kashyapa

The Rig Veda mentions 7 Ādityás, along with Martanda, who is considered as the eighth Ādityá.

The Bhagavata Purana[2] lists a total of twelve Ādityás as Sun-gods. In each month of the year a different Ādityá is said to shine. According to the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, each of these Ādityás is a different expression of the Supreme God Vishnu in the form of the Sun-God.[3]


In the Rigveda, the Ādityás are the celestial deities who are the sons of Aditi,

  1. Varuna
  2. Mitra
  3. Aryaman
  4. Daksha
  5. Bhaga
  6. Amsha
  7. Sometimes Savitr or Surya[4][5]

Bhagavata PuranaEdit

In the Bhagavata Purana, the names of 12 Ādityás are given as:

  1. Vamana
  2. Aryaman
  3. Indra
  4. Tvashtha
  5. Varuna
  6. Dhata
  7. Bhaga
  8. Parjanya
  9. Vivasvan
  10. Amshuman
  11. Mitra
  12. Pushya

In each month of the year, it is a different Ādityá who shines as the Sun-God.[2] As Indra or Vishnu, Surya destroys the enemies of the gods. As Dhata, he creates living beings. As Parjanya, he showers down rain. As Tvashta, he lives in the trees and herbs. As Pusha, he makes foodgrains grow. As Aryama, he is in the wind. As Bhaga, he is in the body of all living beings. As Vivasvana, he is in fire and helps to cook food. As Amshumana, he is again in the wind. As Varuna, he is in the waters and as Mitra, he is in the moon and in the oceans.


The Ādityá have been described in the Rig Veda as bright and pure as streams of water, free from all guile and falsehood, blameless, perfect.

This class of deities has been seen as upholding the movables and immovable Dharma. Ādityás are beneficent gods who act as protectors of all beings, who are provident and guard the world of spirits and protect the world. In the form of Mitra-Varuna, the Ādityás are true to the eternal Law and act as the exactors of debt.[6]

In present-day usage in Sanskrit, the term Ādityá has been made singular in contrast to Vedic Ādityás, and are being used synonymously with Surya, the Sun. The twelve Ādityás are believed to represent the twelve months in the calendar and the twelve aspects of Sun. Since they are twelve in number, they are referred as DvadashĀdityás.[7]

The 12 Ādityás are basically the monthly suns which is the ancient word for the earth moon barycenter for lunar month.[clarification needed] These are also called the 12 purushas, pertaining to the 12 lunar months of the year. Here the months refer to the lunar months. In astronomy the lunar months with a solar sankranti are said to have an Ādityá or purusha. The month without a sankranti is said to be neuter and is said to be an extra month or the intercalary lunar month.

Linga PuranaEdit

According to the Linga Purana,[8] the Ādityás are:

  1. Brahma
  2. Vishnu
  3. Indra (The head of Ādityás)
  4. Tvaṣṭṛ
  5. Varuṇa
  6. Dhata
  7. Bhaga
  8. Savitṛ
  9. Vivasvat
  10. Amshuman
  11. Mitra
  12. Pūṣan

Vedanta and Puranic HinduismEdit

In the Chandogya Upanishad, Ādityá is also a name of Viṣṇu, in his avatar as Vāmana. His mother is Aditi.

The Ādityás in the Vishnu Purana[9] are:

  1. Vishnu
  2. Aryaman
  3. Śakra
  4. Tvaṣṭṛ
  5. Varuṇa
  6. Dhūti
  7. Bhaga
  8. Savitṛ
  9. Vivasvat
  10. Aṃśa
  11. Mitra
  12. Pūṣan


The Vedas do not identify the Ādityas and there is no classification of the thirty-three gods, except for in the Yajurveda (7.19), which says there are eleven gods in heaven (light space), eleven gods in atmosphere (intermediate space), and eleven gods in earth (observer space). In the Satapatha Brahmana, the number of Ādityas is eight in some passages, and in other texts of the same Brahmana, twelve Ādityas are mentioned. [10] The list of 12 Ādityas is as follows:

  1. Yama
  2. Aryaman
  3. Indra
  4. Ravi
  5. Varuṇa
  6. Dhātṛ
  7. Bhaga
  8. Savitṛ
  9. Sūrya or Arka
  10. Aṃśa
  11. Mitra
  12. Dakṣa

Ādityá as nakshatra devatasEdit

Ādityás are responsible for proper functioning of the universe and in Hindu cosmology they are given lordship over celestial constellations, called nakshatras in Jyotish. Nakshatras are forces of universal intelligence which are intertwined with the birth-death cycle of life, identity of all created beings, events and day to day consciousness in our lives. Ādityás manage the Shakti of the nakshatras. Here are few examples.

  1. Bhaga has lordship over Purva Phalguni nakshatra. Bhaga is bestower of fortune. Bhaga in Sanskrit means "a portion" so our portion in life is regulated by this divine celestial being. Many a times this is related to fortunate marriages, or fortune from marriage and partnerships. It is a very worldly nakshatra bestowing divine intelligence with respect to worldly gains in life. Beings born when Purva Phalguni is rising in the east are literal physical manifestation of this energy.
  2. Aryama, the God of Patronage, is an Ādityá who is the lord of Uttar Phalguni nakshtra and as suggested by the name, a person born under the auspices of Aryama finds many lucky opportunities with benefactors in their lives, among many other qualities that are possessed by this divine being.
  3. Savitur, rules over Hasta Nakshatra and is the cheerful Ādityá who manages worldly skills and artistry. Handiwork of all kinds, from needlework, pottery making to technical skills industry, sleight of hand pick pockets, magicians, and Reiki masters all are blessed by the divine intelligence and benevolence of this Ādityá.
  4. Mitra, rules over Anuradha nakshtra they are the peacekeepers of this world.
  5. Varuna, rules over Shatbhishak nakshatra the nakshatra of 1000 healers and gives a person intelligence about all sorts of medicine. Varuna as its ruling Ādityá is lord keeper of law, hence themes of crime and punishment, law and order fall under his rulership. Varuna in RigVeda is to be feared and not taken lightly.

This makes Vedic Ādityás not some conceptual, abstract, or mythological characters in a story book, but part of the visible cosmology and the everyday realities of our daily lives. We manifest their qualities in our lives and as such are part of the divine ourselves.

Ahura-Mazda and ĀdityáEdit

Avestan Ahura derives from Indo-Iranian Asura, also attested in an Indian context as RigVedic Asura. Avestan Daivas are considered synonymous to Vedic Devatas, or Ādityas.

Vedas and Zoroastrian Avesta have a common name Ahura-Mazda, which may refer to some Vedic God (sometimes in Rigveda some Sungods or devatas are worshipped as "asura", which in Zoroastrianism is Ahura-Mazda. See also: Vishnu sahasranama (Ādityá: 39 aĀdityah, 563 aĀdityah - Son of Aditi). Ahura-Mazda is commonly considered a link between Avestan Zoroastrianism and Asuras of Vedic literature, however there is no one specifically called Ahura Mazda in the Vedas.

For evolutionary reasons Asuras and Devatas fought great battles. Ādityás, sons of Rishi Kashyap and Aditi always followed the guidance of Trimurti, or the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva and are responsible for proper functioning of the universe, Asuras challenged their authority at various occasions. Most significantly there are constant battles for the Elixir of Immortality, called Amrit, between the two. This could explain why Avestan Asura-Mazda advised his followers to stay away from Daivas or Vedic Devatas, calling them untrustworthy and unscrupulous shining beings to be avoided at all cost.

Devata] including Ādityás are considered benevolent, and worshiped in the Vedas. There are various types of Devatas in Hinduism and Buddhism, all of them are venerable.

Historically there was little difference between Asuras and Devatas during the times of Veda. Many of them were highly regarded, and comparable to necessary forces of nature. In post Vedic era especially in the narratives of Puranas many Asuras became synonymous with trouble makers, who come into conflict with Mahadev Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma and Indra wreaking havoc on civilizations. There are some famous Asuras-Devatas conflicts including Samudra Manthan regarding churning of the Ocean. There are some famous Asuras such as Vritra-Asur, Bana-Asur, and Bhasma-Asura who challenge Ādityas and specifically Indra, the king of Devatas.

Going by Sanskrit definitions Asura is opposite of Sura. Sura is anything that is in harmony, in tune with laws of nature, called eternal truth or Sanatan Dharam. A-Sura is a being or force of nature which is chaotic, disorderly, and out of tune.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit


  1. ^ Werner, Karel (2005). A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 9781135797539.
  2. ^ a b Srimad Bhagavata Purana 12.11.27-49
  3. ^ Srimad Bhagavata Purana 12.11.45: All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme God Vishnu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset
  4. ^ Jamison, Stephanie; Brereton, Joel (2015). The Rigveda –– Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0190633394.
  5. ^ Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1897). Vedic Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 43.
  6. ^ Rig Veda Book 2, XXVIIth Hymn, Translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith
  7. ^ Sathyamayananda, Swami. Ancient sages. Mylapore, Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math. p. 173. ISBN 81-7505-356-9.
  8. ^ http://www.astrojyoti.com/lingapurana-6.htm
  9. ^ Vishnu Purana: Book I: Chapter XV
  10. ^ Muir, John (1863). Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and Progress of the Religion and Institutions of India. Williams and Norgate. p. 102

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Adityas at Wikimedia Commons