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Ê, ê (e-circumflex) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, found in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Friulian, Kurdish, Norwegian (Nynorsk), Portuguese, Vietnamese, and Welsh. It is used to transliterate Ukrainian and Chinese.

Contents

Usage in various languagesEdit

AfrikaansEdit

Ê is not considered a separate letter in Afrikaans but a variation of "e". The circumflex changes the pronunciation of "e" to be /ɛ/, but "e", without the circumflex, is pronounced as /e/, /æ/ or /ɛ/, depending on its placement in the word.

ChineseEdit

In the Pinyin romanization of Standard Mandarin Chinese, ê represents /ɛ/. It corresponds to Zhuyin ㄝ. The circumflex occurs only if ê is the only letter in the syllable: /ɛ̂/ (; ; "eh!"). Without the circumflex, e as, the only letter in the syllable, represents /ɤ/: è /ɤ̂/ (饿; ; "hungry"). Elsewhere, /ɛ/ is written as a (before n) or e (at the end of a syllable), with the appropriate tone mark,: xiān /ɕi̯ɛ́n/ (; "first"), xuǎn /ɕy̯ɛ̀n/ (; ; "to choose"), xué /ɕy̯ɛ̌ ~ ɕy̯ě/ (; ; "to learn"), xièxie /ɕi̯ɛ̂.ɕi̯ɛ ~ ɕi̯ê.ɕi̯e/ (谢谢; 謝謝; "thanks").

In Pe̍h-ōe-jī, ê is the fifth tone of e: ê (; possessive, adjectival suffix).

DutchEdit

In Dutch, ê changes the pronunciation of e from /ə/ to /ɛ/ and appears only in words from French.

FrenchEdit

Diacritics are not considered to be distinct letters of the French alphabet. In French, ê changes the pronunciation of e from /ə/ to /ɛ/. It is used instead of "è" for words that used to be written "es".

FriulianEdit

Ê represents /e/ and /ɛː/.

ItalianEdit

Ê occasionally used to represent // or /ɛː/ in words like fêro (they did).

KurdishEdit

Ê is the 7th letter of the Kurdish Kurmanji alphabet and represents /e/.

PortugueseEdit

In Portuguese, ê marks a stressed /e/ only in words whose stressed syllable is in an unpredictable location in the word: "pêssego" (peach). The letter, pronounced /e/, can also contrast with é, pronounced /ɛ/, as in (foot).

UkrainianEdit

Ê is used in the ISO 9:1995 system of Ukrainian transliteration as the letter Є.

VietnameseEdit

Ê is the 9th letter of the Vietnamese alphabet and represents /e/. In Vietnamese phonology, diacritics can be added to form five forms to represent five tones of ê:

  • Ề ề
  • Ể ể
  • Ễ ễ
  • Ế ế
  • Ệ ệ

WelshEdit

In Welsh, ê represents long stressed e [eː] if the vowel would otherwise be pronounced as short [ɛ]: llên [ɬeːn] "literature", as opposed to llen [ɬɛn] "curtain", or gêm [ɡeːm] "game", as opposed to gem [ɡɛm] "gem, jewel". That is useful for borrowed words with a final stress like apêl [apˈeːl] "appeal".

OtherEdit

In Popido, a fictious dialect of Esperanto made by Manuel Halvelik for use in literature, ê represents /ə/. It is only used epenthetically to break consonant clusters, especially before grammatical suffixes.

Character mappingsEdit

Unicode encoded 5 pairs of precomposed characters (Ề / ề, Ể / ể, Ễ / ễ, Ế / ế, Ệ / ệ) for the five tones of ê in Vietnamese. Two pairs of the five (Ế / ế and Ề / ề) can also be used as the second and fourth tones of ê in Pinyin. The first and third tones of ê in Pinyin have to be represented by combining diacritical marks, like ê̄ (ê̄) and ê̌ (ê̌).

Character Ê ê
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 202 U+00CA 234 U+00EA
UTF-8 195 138 C3 8A 195 170 C3 AA
Numeric character reference Ê Ê ê ê
Named character reference Ê ê
EBCDIC family 114 72 82 52
ISO 8859-1/3/9/14/15/16 202 CA 234 EA

See alsoEdit