|Prime Minister of France|
7 June 1902 – 24 January 1905
|Preceded by||Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau|
|Succeeded by||Maurice Rouvier|
|Born||6 September 1835|
|Died||25 May 1921 (aged 85)|
|Political party||Radical Party|
Émile Combes was born in Roquecourbe, Tarn. He studied for the priesthood, but abandoned the idea before ordination. His anti-clericalism would later lead him into becoming a Freemason. He was also in later life a spiritualist. He later took a diploma as a doctor of letters (1860). Then he studied medicine, taking his degree in 1867, and setting up in practice at Pons in Charente-Inférieure. In 1881 he presented himself as a political candidate for Saintes, but was defeated. In 1885 he was elected to the senate by the départment of Charente-Inférieure. He sat in the Democratic left, and was elected vice-president in 1893 and 1894. The reports which he drew up upon educational questions drew attention to him, and on 3 November 1895 he entered the Leon Victor Auguste Bourgeois cabinet as minister of public instruction, resigning with his colleagues on 21 April following.
He actively supported the Waldeck-Rousseau ministry, and upon its retirement in 1902 he was himself charged with the formation of a cabinet. In this he took the portfolio of the Interior, and the main energy of the government was devoted to an anti-clerical agenda. The parties of the Left, united upon this question in the Bloc republicain, supported Combes in his application of the law of 1901 on the religious associations, and voted the new bill on the congregations (1904), and under his guidance France took the first definite steps toward the separation of church and state. By 1904, through his efforts, nearly 10,000 religious schools had been closed and thousands of priests and nuns left France rather than be persecuted.
Combes was vigorously opposed by all the Conservative parties, who saw the mass closure of church schools as a persecution of religion. Combes led the anti-clerical coalition on the left, facing opposition primarily organized by the pro-Catholic Action libérale populaire, (ALP). The ALP had a stronger popular base, with better financing and a stronger network of newspapers, but had far fewer seats in parliament.
Among people who looked with favor on his stubborn enforcement of the law, he was familiarly called le petit père. In October 1904, his Minister of War, General André, was uncovered 'republicanizing' the army. He took the promotion process out of the hands of senior officers and handled it directly as a political matter. He used Freemasons to spy on the religious behavior of all 19,000 officers; they flagged the observant Catholics and André made sure they would not be promoted. Exposed as the Affaire Des Fiches, the scandal undermined support for the Combes government. It also undermined morale in the army, as officers realized that hostile spies examining their private lives were more important to their careers than their own professional accomplishments.
Finally the defection of the Radical and Socialist groups induced him to resign on 17 January 1905, although he had not met an adverse vote in the Chamber. His policy was still carried on; and when the law of the separation of church and state was passed, all the leaders of the Radical parties entertained him at a noteworthy banquet in which they openly recognized him as the real originator of the movement.
The campaign for the separation of church and state was the last big political action in his life. While still possessed of great influence over extreme Radicals, Combes took but little public part in politics after his resignation of the premiership in 1905. He joined the Aristide Briand ministry of October 1915 as one of the five Elder Statesmen, but without portfolio.
According to Geoffrey Kurtz, the years of Émile Combe's administration were a period of social reform "without equal" during the era of the Third Republic, which included such reforms as an eight-hour day for miners, a ten-hour day for many workers, the lowering of mandatory military service from 3 to 2 years, the elimination of certain middle-class draft exemptions, and some modest public assistance for the chronically ill, the disabled, and the elderly. In 1903, safety standards were extended to shops and offices.
Combes died 25 May 1921 in Pons, Charente-Maritime.
Combes's Ministry, 7 June 1902 – 24 January 1905Edit
- Émile Combes – President of the Council and Minister of the Interior and Worship
- Théophile Delcassé – Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Louis André – Minister of War
- Maurice Rouvier – Minister of Finance
- Ernest Vallé – Minister of Justice
- Charles Camille Pelletan – Minister of Marine
- Joseph Chaumié – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
- Léon Mougeot – Minister of Agriculture
- Gaston Doumergue – Minister of Colonies
- Émile Maruéjouls – Minister of Public Works
- Georges Trouillot – Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts, and Telegraphs
- Ce que la France doit aux francs-maçons (Laurent KUPFERMAN and Emmanuel PIERRAT - Grund ed. - 2012)
- Dictionnaire universel de la Franc-Maçonnerie (Monique Cara, Jean-Marc Cara and Marc de Jode - Larousse ed. - 2011)
- Histoire de la Franc-Maçonnerie française (Pierre Chevallier, Fayard ed., 1975)
- Masonic references in the works of Charles Williams Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon 2007
- Burke, Peter The New Cambridge Modern History p. 304 (1979 Cambridge University)
- Bigots united
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Combes, Émile". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 751–752. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
- "Emile Combes who boasted of taking office for the sole purpose of destroying the religious orders. He closed thousands of what were not then called 'faith schools'" Bigots united in the Guardian, 9 October 2005
- Burns, Michael France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History p. 171 (1999 Palgrave Macmillan) ISBN 0-312-21813-3
- Benjamin F. Martin, "The Creation of the Action Libérale Populaire: an Example of Party Formation in Third Republic France." French Historical Studies 9.4 (1976): 660–689. online
- Douglas Porch, The March to the Marne: The French Army 1871-1914 (2003) excerpt and text search pp 92–104, is the most thorough account in English
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Combes, Justin Louis Émile". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.
- Kurtz, Geoffrey (2014). Jean Jaurès: The Inner Life of Social Democracy. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 118. ISBN 9780271065823.
- Stewart, Mary Lynn (1989). Women, Work, and the French State: Labour Protection and Social Patriarchy, 1879-1919. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780773562059.
- Akan, Murat. The Politics of Secularism: Religion, Diversity, and Institutional Change in France and Turkey (2017).
- Arnal, Oscar L. "Why the French Christian Democrats Were Condemned." Church History 49.2 (1980): 188–202. online
- Coffey, Joan L. "Of Catechisms and Sermons: Church-State Relations in France, 1890–1905." Church history 66.1 (1997): 54–66. online
- McManners, John. Church and State in France, 1870–1914 (Harper & Row, 1972), pp. 125–55.
- Mayeur, Jean-Marie Mayeur and Madeleine Rebérioux. The Third Republic from its Origins to the Great War, 1871-1914 (1984), pp. 227–44
- Merle, Gabriel. Emile Combes (1995), p. 1, 662 p.; standard biography, in French
- Partin, Malcolm. Waldeck-Rousseau, Combes, and the Church: the Politics of Anticlericalism, 1899–1905 (1969)
- Sabatier, Paul. Disestablishment in France (1906) online
| Prime Minister of France