Çetes were Muslim armed irregular brigands who were active in Asia Minor after World War I. They were notorious for their assaults on Christian Orthodox Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians during the 1910s and 1920s.[1][2]

Çetes parading with loot in Phocaea (modern-day Foça, Turkey) on 13 June 1914. In the background are Greek refugees and burning buildings.

The term was also used as a synonym for members of the Special Organization.[3]


  1. ^ Raymond Kevorkian. The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History, ISBN 0857730207, I.B.Tauris, 2011.
  2. ^ George N. Shirinian. Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks, 1913-1923, ISBN 1785334336, Berghahn Books, 2017.
  3. ^ Akçam, Taner (2008). "Guenter Lewy's The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey". Genocide Studies and Prevention. 3 (1): 111–145. doi:10.3138/gsp.3.1.111.

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