? (XXXTentacion album)

? is the second studio album by American rapper XXXTentacion and his last studio album to be released before his death. It was released on March 16, 2018, by Bad Vibes Forever, Caroline Distribution, and Capitol Music Group. It succeeds the release of his debut studio album 17 (2017) and the extended play A Ghetto Christmas Carol (2017). The album was primarily produced by frequent collaborator John Cunningham, and includes guest appearances from PnB Rock, Travis Barker, Joey Badass, and Matt Ox.

?
Black and white images of XXXTentacion, overlayed with a white square that has a question mark in the center.
Studio album by
ReleasedMarch 16, 2018
Recorded2017–2018
Genre
Length37:36
Label
Producer
XXXTentacion chronology
A Ghetto Christmas Carol
(2017)
?
(2018)
Skins
(2018)
Singles from ?
  1. "Sad!"
    Released: March 2, 2018
  2. "Changes"
    Released: March 2, 2018
  3. "Moonlight"
    Released: August 14, 2018
Alternate cover
Deluxe Anniversary Edition cover
Deluxe Anniversary Edition cover

Featuring more live instrumentation than 17, ? features an array of genres, including acoustic, emo, alternative rock, trap, and cloud rap. XXXTentacion's vocals on parts the album are less restrained and lo-fi-ish compared to 17, with his vocals on introspective songs over piano and acoustic guitar chords being more projected. On other parts of the album, XXXTentacion's style resembles his underground sound, with him screaming. ? received generally positive reviews from critics, and became XXXTentacion's first US number-one album, debuting at number one on the Billboard 200 with 131,000 album-equivalent units earned in its first week. The album has since been certified triple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). It was supported by three singles: "Sad!", "Changes", and "Moonlight". Following XXXTentacion's death on June 18, 2018, "Sad!" topped the Billboard Hot 100, where XXXTentacion became the first act to earn a posthumous Hot 100 number-one single as a lead artist since The Notorious B.I.G. with "Mo Money Mo Problems" in 1997.

At the 2019 Billboard Music Awards, ? was nominated for Top Billboard 200 Album, among other nominations. An anniversary deluxe edition of the album was originally going to be released on July 26, 2019 but was pushed back to September 6, 2019, featuring the album's instrumentals, A Ghetto Christmas Carol, voice memos from the recording sessions of the album, and new material featuring American rapper Rico Nasty and Japanese video game composer Yoko Shimomura.

BackgroundEdit

XXXTentacion released his debut studio album, 17 in August 2017[3] to commercial success.[4] Following the release of the album, he announced he was quitting music due to negativity and backlash,[5] though he eventually signed a $6 million one-album deal with Caroline Distribution[6] and released A Ghetto Christmas Carol EP on his SoundCloud on December 11, 2017.[7]

After the release of A Ghetto Christmas Carol, XXXTentacion announced he was preparing three new albums[8] and eventually announced the titles of the albums as Bad Vibes Forever, Skins, and ?, after being released on house arrest on December 23, 2017.[9] The track listing and release date was confirmed by XXXTentacion on March 12, 2018 via social media.[10][11]

CompositionEdit

A contrast to 17, the album features an array of genres, including alternative rock, emo,[12] trap, acoustic,[1] and cloud rap. The song "I Don't Even Speak Spanish lol" has been labelled as reggaeton pop,[1] while "Infinity (888)" is a classic hip hop song.[13] XXXTentacion's vocals on parts the album are less restrained and lo-fi-ish compared to 17, with his vocals over piano and acoustic guitar chords being more projected.[14] On other parts of the album, XXXTentacion's style resembles his underground sound pre-"Look at Me", with him portraying anger through screaming. The album also features sounds similar to the Soundcloud rap scene, as XXXTentacion mumble raps over less serious themes.[14]

PromotionEdit

The cover art was first shown on XXXTentacion's Instagram story on January 28, 2018, with the caption "coming soon". Later that day, he explained that:

"This albums not about the words, it's about the feeling...it'll be very hard to understand, but very easy to listen to...it's not what you're expecting, even if you feel like you understand my music, be prepared to not understand this music."

XXXTentacion released the song "Hope" on his SoundCloud on February 21, 2018, dedicated to the survivors of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.[15][16] XXXTentacion later hosted a benefit show for the survivors[17] on March 18, 2018 and offered condolences to the victims of the shooting.[18] On February 25, 2018, after the release of "Hope", the rapper posted vague messages on social media accusing Canadian rapper Drake of threatening to murder him alongside crude photoshopped images of Drake.[19][20] XXXTentacion proceeded to claim his accounts were hacked whilst there was speculation he was insulting the rapper for promotion of "Sad!" and “Changes”.[21]

SinglesEdit

The lead singles "Sad!" and "Changes" were released March 2, 2018, for streaming and digital download.[22] "Sad!" debuted at number 17, and peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming XXXTentacion's first number-one song and his highest-charting single to date.[23] XXXTentacion became the first act to earn a posthumous Hot 100 number-one single as a lead artist since The Notorious B.I.G. with "Mo Money Mo Problems" in 1997.[24] "Changes" debuted at number 47 on the week beginning March 13, 2018, and peaked at number 18.[25] The album's third single "Moonlight" was released posthumously to rhythmic radio on August 14, 2018.[26][27] "Moonlight" peaked at 13 on the Billboard Hot 100 after XXXTentacion's murder.

The Rico Nasty remix of "#ProudCatOwner" was released in August 2019 as a promotional single for the album's deluxe edition.[28]

Critical receptionEdit

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic     [29]
HotNewHipHop70%[1]
Salute Magazine3/5[30]
Sputnikmusic0.5/5[31]
XXL4/5[32]

In a positive review, online publication HotNewHipHop stated that "Despite a sagging middle section, ? features some of X's most nuanced and impressive material to date", adding that "X's commitment to honoring his various influences is admirable, but it may have behooved him to spend a little bit more time on sequencing this artistic kaleidoscope."[1] Sputnikmusic gave a negative review, saying that "This exercise in granting credence to emotionally stunted, bad musicians is something that is truly stunning to bear witness to."[31] XXL gave the album a positive review, and wrote "The album sonically goes every which way—a double-edge sword that can make for a dizzying, disjointed listen at times. Still, ? is X's most stimulating offering to date and with a little more focus on structure and cohesion, X's best work could very well be ahead of him."[32]

At the 2019 Billboard Music Awards, ? was nominated for Top Billboard 200 Album, among other nominations.[33]

Commercial performanceEdit

? debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 with 131,000 album-equivalent units, with 20,000 pure album sales.[34] It was XXXTentacion's only US number-one album during his lifetime.[34] The album was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) on August 7, 2018.[35]

? also reached number one in Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, and Sweden. Following XXXTentacion's death, the album reached a new peak of number one in the Netherlands.[36] It also ascended the Billboard 200 from number twenty-four to three, earning 94,000 units.[37] As well as the United States, the album has been certified platinum in Canada, France, Italy, Sweden, and triple platinum in Denmark.

An anniversary deluxe edition of the album was originally going to be released on July 26, 2019 but was pushed back to September 6, 2019, featuring the album's instrumentals, the EP A Ghetto Christmas Carol (2017), voice memos from the recording sessions of the album, and new material featuring American rapper Rico Nasty and Japanese video game composer Yoko Shimomura.[38]

Track listingEdit

Credits adapted from Tidal, YouTube Music and iTunes.[39][40]

No.TitleWriter(s)Producer(s)Length
1."Introduction (Instructions)"Jahseh OnfroyXXXTentacion1:57
2."Alone, Part 3"
  • Onfroy
  • John Cunningham
  • Robert Soukiasyan
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan
1:49
3."Moonlight"
  • Onfroy
  • Cunningham
Cunningham2:15
4."Sad!"
  • Onfroy
  • Cunningham
Cunningham2:46
5."The Remedy for a Broken Heart (Why Am I So in Love)"
  • Onfroy
  • Cunningham
  • XXXTentacion
  • Cunningham
2:40
6."Floor 555"
  • Onfroy
  • Alejandro Rodriguez
Dell Soda1:33
7."Numb"
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan[a]
3:06
8."Infinity (888)" (featuring Joey Badass)
P. Soul2:56
9."Going Down!"1:55
10."Pain = Best Friend" (featuring Travis Barker)
  • XXXTentacion
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan[a]
1:50
11."$$$" (with Matt Ox)
  • Onfroy
  • Denmarc Mangupag
  • Laron Wages
  • Matthew Grau
  • Den Beats
  • Wages
2:10
12."Love Yourself (interlude)"
  • Onfroy
  • Cunningham
  • XXXTentacion
  • Cunningham
0:48
13."Smash!" (featuring PnB Rock)
1:49
14."I Don't Even Speak Spanish LOL" (featuring Rio Santana, Judah and Carlos Andrez)
  • Onfroy
  • Juan Guerrieri-Maril
  • Flavio Santana
  • Judah Amar
  • Carlos Andrez
  • John Crawford
Z3N3:12
15."Changes"
  • Onfroy
  • Allen
  • Cunningham
  • Cunningham
  • XXXTentacion
2:02
16."Hope"
  • Onfroy
  • Cunningham
Cunningham1:50
17."Schizophrenia"
  • Onfroy
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan
1:20
18."Before I Close My Eyes"
  • Onfroy
  • Cunningham
Cunningham1:39
Total length:37:36
Deluxe Anniversary Edition – Disc 1[38]
No.TitleProducer(s)Length
19."Alone, Part 3" (Instrumental)
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan
1:49
20."Moonlight" (Instrumental)Cunningham2:15
21."Sad!" (Instrumental)Cunningham2:46
22."The Remedy for a Broken Heart (Why Am I So in Love)" (Instrumental)
  • XXXTentacion
  • Cunningham
2:40
23."Floor 555" (Instrumental)Dell Soda1:33
24."Numb" (Instrumental)
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan[a]
3:06
25."Infinity (888)" (Instrumental)P. Soul2:56
26."Going Down!" (Instrumental)
  • TM88
  • Tre Pounds
1:55
27."Pain = Best Friend" (Instrumental)
  • XXXTentacion
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan[a]
1:50
28."$$$" (Instrumental)
  • Den Beats
  • Wages
2:10
29."Love Yourself" (interlude) (Instrumental)
  • XXXTentacion
  • Cunningham
0:48
30."Smash!" (Instrumental)
  • Smash David
  • Rekless
1:49
31."I Don't Even Speak Spanish LOL" (Instrumental)Z3N3:12
32."Changes" (Instrumental)
  • Cunningham
  • XXXTentacion
2:02
33."Hope" (Instrumental)Cunningham1:50
34."Schizophrenia" (Instrumental)
  • Cunningham
  • Soukiasyan
1:20
35."Before I Close My Eyes" (Instrumental)Cunningham1:39
Total length:73:19
Deluxe Anniversary Edition – Disc 2[38]
No.TitleWriter(s)Producer(s)Length
36."Nocturne" (performed by Yoko Shimomura)  2:11
37."Hope (Freestyle)"  2:18
38."Jah on Drums"  0:59
39."Numb" (Acoustic)  2:32
40."#ProudCatOwnerRemix" (featuring Rico Nasty)Ronny J2:37
41."A Ghetto Christmas Carol"
1:45
42."Hate Will Never Win"
  • Onfroy
J Dilla1:44
43."Up Like an Insomniac (Freestyle)"
  • Onfroy
  • Spence, Jr.
  • XXXTentacion
  • Ronny J
2:31
44."Red Light!"
  • Onfroy
  • Spence, Jr.
Ronny J1:05
45."Indecision"OnfroyXXXTentacion2:04
46."Voice Memo 1: Alone, Part 3"  2:37
47."Voice Memo 2: Sad!"  3:38
48."Voice Memo 3: Moonlight"  2:29
49."Voice Memo 4: The Remedy for a Broken Heart"  2:29
50."Voice Memo 5: Going Down!"  1:40
51."Voice Memo 6: Changes"  3:29
52."Voice Memo 7: Before I Close My Eyes"  2:10
53."Voice Memo 8: Sad! Video Concept"  3:14
Total length:114:51

Notes

  • ^[a] signifies a co-producer
  • "Changes" features uncredited vocals by PnB Rock.[41]
  • “#ProudCatOwnerRemix” is a remix of the 2017 track “#ProudCatOwner #IHateRappers #IEatPussy”

Stylizations

  • "Introduction (Instructions)" is stylized as "introduction (instructions)".
  • "Alone, Part 3", "Sad!", "Numb", "Smash!”, and "#ProudCatOwnerRemix" are stylized in uppercase letters. For example, "Sad!" is stylized as "SAD!".
  • "The Remedy for a Broken Heart (Why Am I So in Love)", "I Don't Even Speak Spanish LOL", and "Before I Close My Eyes" are stylized in lowercase letters, except for the word I.
  • "Infinity (888)", "Going Down!", "Love Yourself", "Changes" and "Schizophenia" are stylized in lowercase letters. For example, "Infinity (888)" is stylized as "infinity (888)".
  • "Pain = Best Friend" is stylized as "Pain = BESTFRIEND".
  • "Jah on Drums" is stylized in sentence case.

PersonnelEdit

Credits adapted from Tidal and YouTube Music.[40]

ChartsEdit

CertificationsEdit

Region Certification Certified units/sales
Australia (ARIA)[112] Platinum 70,000 
Belgium (BEA)[113] Gold 15,000*
Canada (Music Canada)[114] Platinum 80,000 
Denmark (IFPI Denmark)[115] 3× Platinum 60,000 
France (SNEP)[116] 2× Platinum 200,000 
Italy (FIMI)[117] Platinum 50,000 
New Zealand (RMNZ)[118] Gold 7,500 
Norway (IFPI Norway)[119] 2× Platinum 40,000*
Singapore (RIAS)[120] Gold 5,000*
Sweden (GLF)[121] Platinum 30,000 
United Kingdom (BPI)[122] Platinum 300,000 
United States (RIAA)[35] 3× Platinum 3,000,000 

* Sales figures based on certification alone.
  Sales+streaming figures based on certification alone.

Release historyEdit

Region Date Format(s) Label Ref.
Various March 16, 2018 Bad Vibes Forever [123]
March 22, 2018 Vinyl [124]
June 1, 2018 CD [125]
September 6, 2019
  • Streaming
  • digital download
  • CD
  • vinyl (Deluxe Anniversary release)
[126]

ReferencesEdit

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