ʿAin Ghazal statues

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The ʿAin Ghazal Statues are a number of large-scale lime plaster and reed statues discovered at the archeological site of ʿAin Ghazal in Jordan, dating back to approximately 9000 years ago (made between 7200 BC[3] and 6250 BCE),[4] from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic C period.[2] A total of 15 statues and 15 busts were discovered in 1983 and 1985 in two underground caches, created about 200 years apart.[5]

ʿAin Ghazal statues
Ain Ghazal statue.jpg
Materialplaster and reed
Size32 items
Createdbetween 7200 BC[1] and 6250 BC [2]
ʿAin Ghazal, Amman, Jordan
31°59′17″N 35°58′34″E / 31.988°N 35.976°E / 31.988; 35.976
Present locationThe Jordan Museum
ʿAin Ghazal is located in Near East
ʿAin Ghazal
ʿAin Ghazal
ʿAin Ghazal is located in Jordan
ʿAin Ghazal
ʿAin Ghazal

The statues are among the earliest large-scale representations of the human form, and are regarded to be among the most remarkable specimens of prehistoric art from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B or C period.[6] Their purpose remains uncertain, with archaeologists believing they may have been buried just after production, having possibly been made with that intent.[7][8]

The ʿAin Ghazal Statues are today part of the collections of The Jordan Museum in Amman, with some also on display at the Citadel's Jordan Archaeological Museum, while a few have been loaned to foreign museums: one statue is in the Louvre Museum in Paris; parts of three other statues can be seen at the British Museum in London;[9] and one of the figures with two heads is on show in the Louvre Abu Dhabi.[10][11]


Statues at the Amman Citadel
Closeup of one of the bicephalous statues

The figures are of two types, full statues and busts. Some of the busts are two-headed. Great effort was put into modelling the heads, with wide-open eyes and bitumen-outlined irises. The statues represent men, women and children; women are recognizable by features resembling breasts and slightly enlarged bellies, but neither male nor female sexual characteristics are emphasized, and none of the statues have genitals, the only part of the statue fashioned with any amount of detail being the faces.[7]

The statues were formed by modelling moist plaster from limestone on a reed core using plants that grew along the banks of the Zarqa River. The reed decayed over the millennia, leaving plaster shells with hollow interiors. Lime plaster is formed by heating limestone to temperatures between 600 and 900 °C (1,100 and 1,700 °F); hydrated lime is then combined with water to make a dough, which was then modelled. Plaster becomes a water-resistant material when it dries and hardens. Heads, torsos and legs were formed from separate bundles of reeds which were then assembled and covered in plaster. The irises were outlined with bitumen and the heads were likely covered with some sort of wig.[12]

They are taller than figurines or statuettes, but not human-sized, the tallest statues having a height of close to 1 m (3 ft). They are disproportionately flat, about 10 cm (4 in) in thickness. They were nevertheless designed to stand up, probably anchored to the floor in enclosed areas and intended to be seen only from the front.[13][14] The way the statues were made would not have permitted them to last long, and since they were buried in pristine condition it is possible that they were never on display for any extended period of time, but rather produced for the purpose of intentional burial.[7]

Discovery and conservationEdit

ʿAin Ghazal statue at the Jordan Archaeological Museum, Amman

The site of ʿAin Ghazal was discovered in 1974 by developers who were building a highway connecting Amman to the city of Zarqa. Excavation began in 1982. The site was inhabited during ca. 7250–5000 BC.[15] In its prime era, during the first half of the 7th millennium BC, the settlement extended over 10–15 hectares (25–37 ac) and was inhabited by ca. 3000 people.[15]

The statues were discovered in 1983. While examining a cross section of earth in a path carved out by a bulldozer, archaeologists came across the edge of a large pit 2.5 meters (8 ft) under the surface containing plaster statues. Excavation led by Gary O. Rollefson took place in 1984/5, with a second set of excavation under the direction of Rollefson and Zeidan Kafafi during 1993–1996.[16]

A total of 15 statues and 15 busts were found in two caches, which were separated by nearly 200 years. Because they were carefully deposited in pits dug into the floors of abandoned houses, they are remarkably well-preserved.[17] Remains of similar statues found at Jericho and Nahal Hemar have survived only in fragmentary state.[13]

The pit where the statues were found was carefully dug around, and the contents were placed in a wooden box filled with polyurethane foam for protection during shipping.[12] The statues are made of plaster, which is fragile especially after being buried for so long. The first set of statues discovered at the site was sent to the Royal Archaeological Institute in Great Britain, while the second set, found a few years later, were sent to the Smithsonian Institution in New York for restoration work. The statues were returned to Jordan after their conservation and can be seen in the Jordan Museum.[18]

Part of the find is on loan in the British Museum. One statue is on loan at the Louvre Museum in Paris, and one of the figures with two heads is on show at the Louvre Abu Dhabi.[10][11]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Ben-Nissan, Besim (17 April 2014). Advances in Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials. Springer Science & Business. p. 436. ISBN 9783642539800. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b Kleiner, Fred S.; Mamiya, Christin J. (2006). Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective: Volume 1 (Twelfth ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 0-495-00479-0. "ca. 6500 6250 BCE".
  3. ^ Ben-Nissan, Besim (17 April 2014). Advances in Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials. Springer Science & Business. p. 436. ISBN 9783642539800. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  4. ^ "Ain Ghazal | Description, Culture, Significance, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  5. ^ McCarter, Susan (12 November 2012). Neolithic. Routledge. pp. 161–163. ISBN 9781134220397. Retrieved 20 June 2016. G. O. Rollefson in: Ian Kuijt (ed.), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Springer (2006), p. 153.
  6. ^ "Lime Plaster statues". British Museum. Trustees of the British Museum. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015. The tallest of the Ayn Ghazal statues reach about 1 m in height, and they are assumed to have been free-standing, though anchored in the ground as they could not stand up unsupported. Upper Paleolithic figurines tend to be smaller than 20 cm in height. Taller representations of the human form from the Paleolithic era, such as the Venus of Laussel, are in bas-relief or painted.
  7. ^ a b c McCarter, Susan (2012). Neolithic, Routledge, p. 163.
  8. ^ Feldman, Keffie. "Ain-Ghazal (Jordan) Pre-pottery Neolithic B Period pit of lime plaster human figures". Joukowsky Institute, Brown University. Retrieved 16 June 2018. They are largely held to represent the ancestors of those in the community, or variations on this theme. One can make the argument for this based on the similar treatment of the heads of these statues and the disarticulated and buried plastered skulls. The burial of the statues is also similar to the manner in which the people of Ain Ghazal buried their dead. However, what if these statues are not representations at all, but instead are enlivened objects themselves? What if they were buried in a similar manner to humans because they were thought to have died, or have lost their animate powers? These statues bring up equally many questions as answers, and for this reason will provide a rich site for future study.
  9. ^ "British Museum, London, United Kingdom — Google Arts & Culture". artsandculture.google.com. Retrieved 2021-09-09.
  10. ^ a b Carvalho, Stanley (2017-11-07). "East meets West as Louvre Abu Dhabi opens in the Gulf". Reuters. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  11. ^ a b "The First Villages | Gallery 1". Louvre Abu Dhabi. Retrieved 2021-09-04.
  12. ^ a b "Preserving Ancient Statues from Jordan (1996-1997 exhibition )". Arthur M. Sackler Gallery & Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 20 February 2001. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  13. ^ a b McCarter, Susan (2012). Neolithic, Routledge, p. 161. Cache 1: Sq 2083 Loc. 20: 13 full figures, 12 one-headed busts Cache 2: Sq 3282 Loc 049: 2 figures, 3 two-headed busts and 2 unidentified pieces.
  14. ^ McGovern, Patrick E (30 October 2010). Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Wine, Beer, and Other Alcoholic Beverages. University of California Press. p. 91. ISBN 9780520944688. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  15. ^ a b Barker, Graeme; Goucher, Candice (2015). The Cambridge World History: Volume 2, A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE–500 CE. Cambridge University Press. pp. 426–. ISBN 978-1-316-29778-0.
  16. ^ preliminary excavation reports: Rollefson, G., and Kafafi, Z. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 38 (1994), 11–32; 40 (1996), 11–28; 41 (1997), 27–48.
  17. ^ Tubb, Kathryn W., The statues of 'Ain Ghazal: discovery, recovery and reconstruction, Archaeology International, archived from the original (pdf) on 2015-04-03
  18. ^ Kafafi, Zeidan (2014). Ayn Ghazal. A 10,000 year-old Jordanian village. Atlas of Jordan. Contemporain publications. Presses de l'Ifpo. pp. 111–113. ISBN 9782351594384.
  • Akkermans, Peter M.M.G. and Glenn M. Schwartz (2003), The archaeology of Syria: from complex hunter-gatherers to early urban societies (ca. 16,000–300 BC), Cambridge World Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, pp. 83ff.
  • Grissom, C.A. (2000), "Neolithic statues from 'Ain Ghazal: construction and form", American Journal of Archaeology 104, 25–45.
  • Rollefson, G.O. (1983), "Ritual and ceremony at Neolithic 'Ain Ghazal (Jordan)". Paléorient 9, 29–38.
  • Rollefson, G.O. (1984), "Early Neolithic statuary from 'Ain Ghazal (Jordan)", Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 116, 185–192.
  • Rollefson, G.O. (1986), "Neolithic 'Ain Ghazal (Jordan)- Ritual and ceremony II", Paléorient 12, 45–51.