Thomas & Poinar, 1979
Xenorhabdus spp. are motile, Gram-negative enterobacteria that form mutualistic associations with entomopathogenic soil nematodes in the genus Steinernema and are pathogenic towards a variety of insects. In the nematode, Xenorhabdus spp. are carried in a specialized region of the intestine, termed the receptacle, of the third-stage infective juvenile (IJ). The IJs live in the soil until they invade the hemocoel of susceptible insect hosts. The bacteria are released in the insect hemocoel, where they overcome the insect's defense systems and produce numerous virulence factors that participate in suppressing insect immunity and killing the host. The bacteria proliferate to high levels in the insect cadaver and produce diverse antimicrobial compounds that suppress the growth of antagonistic microorganisms. Xenorhabdus spp. also secrete an array of exoenzymes that stimulate macromolecular degradation, the products of which, together with the bacteria themselves, are thought to provide a nutrient base for nematode growth and reproduction. When nematode numbers become high and nutrients become limiting in the insect cadaver, nematode progeny re-associate with bacteria and differentiate into colonized, non-feeding IJs that emerge into the soil to forage for new hosts. Thus, the tripartite Xenorhabdus-nematode-insect interaction represents a model system in which both mutualistic and pathogenic processes can be studied in a single bacterial species.
As of this edit, this article uses content from "The Entomopathogenic Bacterial Endosymbionts Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus: Convergent Lifestyles from Divergent Genomes", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed.
- Steven Forst, Barbara Dowds, Noël Boemare & Erko Stackebrandt (1997). "Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp.: bugs that kill bugs". Annual Review of Microbiology 51: 47–72. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.51.1.47. PMID 9343343.
- Chaston, John M.; Garret Suen, Sarah L. Tucker, Aaron W. Andersen, Archna Bhasin, Edna Bode, Helge B. Bode, Alexander O. Brachmann, Charles E. Cowles, Kimberly N. Cowles, Creg Darby, Limaris de Léon, Kevin Drace, Zijin Du, Alain Givaudan, Erin E. Herbert Tran, Kelsea A. Jewell, Jennifer J. Knack, Karina C. Krasomil-Osterfeld, Ryan Kukor, Anne Lanois, Phil Latreille, Nancy K. Leimgruber, Carolyn M. Lipke, Renyi Liu, Xiaojun Lu, Eric C. Martens, Pradeep R. Marri, Claudine Médigue, Megan L. Menard, Nancy M. Miller, Nydia Morales-Soto, Stacie Norton, Jean-Claude Ogier, Samantha S. Orchard, Dongjin Park, Youngjin Park, Barbara A. Qurollo, Darby Renneckar Sugar, Gregory R. Richards, Zoé Rouy, Brad Slominski, Kathryn Slominski, Holly Snyder, Brian C. Tjaden, Ransome van der Hoeven, Roy D. Welch, Cathy Wheeler, Bosong Xiang, Brad Barbazuk, Sophie Gaudriault, Brad Goodner, Steven C. Slater, Steven Forst, Barry S. Goldman, Heidi Goodrich-Blair (2011-11-18). "The Entomopathogenic Bacterial Endosymbionts Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus: Convergent Lifestyles from Divergent Genomes". PLoS ONE 6 (11): e27909. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027909. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
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