Vipera palaestinae is a venomous viper species found in the area spanning western Syria, northwestern Jordan, northern and central Israel, the West Bank and Lebanon. It is considered a leading cause of snakebite within its range. No subspecies are currently recognized.
Grows to an average length of 70-90 cm, with a maximum of 130 cm.
Northern and central Israel, West Bank, western Syria, northwestern Jordan, and Lebanon. Mallow et al. (2003) describe the range as relatively restricted, with the distribution being concentrated in the Mediterranean coastal plains to the inland hills of Lebanon and Palestine, along with the adjoining regions of Syria and Jordan. The type locality given is "Haifa, Palästina."
This species is classified as Least Concern (LC) according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v3.1, 2001). It was given this status due to its relatively wide distribution, the fact that it is found in a wide range of habitats, its presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. The population trend is unknown. Year assessed: 2005. 
The classification of this species has resulted in much taxonomic controversy. Before Werner (1938), these snakes were incorporated into V. xanthina, and subsequently synonymized with V. lebetina by Boulenger (1896). Mertens (1952) moved it back to V xanthina as a subspecies, and more recently a number of authorities, including Obst (1983) and Mallow et al. (2003) have included it as part of the genus Daboia. The result is that many studies related to this medically significant species have been published under different scientific names.
- McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
- Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
- Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
- O'Shea, Mark (2008). Venomous Snakes of the World (Illustrated ed.). New Holland Publishers. p. 60. ISBN 1-84773-086-8, 9781847730862 Check
- U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
- "Vipera palaestinae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 18 August 2006.
- Daboia palaestinae at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 2 September 2007.
- 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1) at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 2 September 2007.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Vipera palaestinae|
- Vipera palaestinae at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 2 September 2007.
- Video of Daboia palaestinae, followed by Naja pallida on YouTube. Accessed 30 June 2007.