|Regions with significant populations|
They live in six villages on the borders of Terra Indigena Uru-Eu-Uaw-Uaw, which is shared by three sub-groups, the Amondawa, Jupaú, and Uru Pa In, as well as the Jurureí, Parakua, and two uncontacted tribes whose names are not known.
The Uru-Eu-Uaw-Uaw came into contact with non-Natives, specifically the National Indian Foundation (FUNAI) in 1981, which was followed by a loss of population. In 1981, there were 250 Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau people, but only 89 in 1993. Diseases and violent attacks by outsiders have killed them. Rubber harvesters fought FUNAI's outlines of Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau lands. In 1991, one of the world's largest known tin deposits was discovered in Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau lands.
After 1993 their population began increasing again. The Terra Indigena Uru-Eu-Uaw-Uaw was established by the Brazilian government to protect the tribes and only Indians can legally live in the Indigenous Territory; however, loggers and miners have regularly invaded their lands. Missionaries are active among the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau, and an NGO called Kanindé is trying to fight outside influences and assimilationists on the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau.
The Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau speak the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau language, a Tupi–Guarani language, Subgroup IV. The language is also known as Uru-Eu-Uau-Uau, Eru-Eu-Wau-Wau, Ureuwawau, or Kagwahiva, and its ISO 639-3 language code is "urz".
The Uru-Eu-Uaw-Uaw are hunter-gatherers. They use a poison made from tree bark on their arrows when hunting tapir and other game. They are known for their distinctive tattoos around their mouths made from genipapo, a black vegetal dye.
- "Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau: Introduction." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. (retrieved 26 April 2011)
- "Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau." Ethnologue. (retrieved 26 April 2011)
- "Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau: Identification and Demography." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. (retrieved 26 April 2011)
- "Urueu-Wau-Wau." World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. (retrieved 22 May 2011)
- "Massive Invasion of Isolated Indians' Land." Survival International. 12 Jan 2007 (retrieved 26 April 2011)