Treaty of Munich (1619)
The Treaty of Munich was signed on October 8, 1619 in Munich between Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. A Spanish ambassador named Oñate persuaded Ferdinand to grant Maximilian any part of the Palatine to occupy, as well as the electoral title of Frederick V. Moreover, Oñate exceeded his duties by guaranteeing Ferdinand Spanish support in dealing with the Bohemian rebels. Based on the terms of the treaty, Maximilian, leader of the Catholic League, made his Bavarian forces available to Emperor Ferdinand. In return, Maximilian was granted territories in the Palatine in order to maintain his forces.
- Sutherland, p. 614. In electing Frederick, Bohemia formalized her connection with the militant German princes, her last remaining hope. But the Union was not militant, and Frederick had acted rashly without first securing its full support - or apparently any support at all. Yet he must have seen the cracks appearing at the Rothenburg assembly. Opposing their leaders and concerned for their own defence, the members of the Union were not prepared to save Bohemia, but only to support the Palatinate in Germany - a factitious distinction difficult to sustain. In this confusion, the Spanish ambassador, Oñate, was quick to exert his influence. Serious Catholic action against Bohemia and the Palatinate derived from the treaty of Munich (8 October 1619) between Ferdinand and Maximilian of Bavaria, leader of the Catholic League. With a total disregard for German interests, Oñate persuaded Ferdinand to offer Maximilian any part of the Palatinate he could occupy, together with Frederick's electoral title - an arrangement Spain was later to regret. Oñate, exceeding his instructions, also guaranteed the Spanish support without which Maximilian would not play. These disruptive agreements were to have serious, long-term repercussions. Not only were they illegal; they were designed to alter the balance of the electoral college in Ferdinand's favour. In the short term, the treaty secured a Catholic army which, together with Spanish help, defeated Frederick and the Bohemian rebels on 8 November 1620 - the battle of the White Mountain.
- Sutherland, N.M. The Origins of the Thirty Years War and the Structure of European Politics. Oxford University Press: The English Historical Review, Vol 107, No. 424, pp. 587-625, July 1992.