The Garhwal Rifles
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|The Garhwal Rifles|
Regimental Insignia of the Garhwal Rifles
|Active||May 5, 1887–Present|
|Country|| Indian Empire 1887-1947
|Motto||Yudhaya Krit Nischya (Fight With Determination)|
|War Cry||Badri Vishal Lal Ki Jai (Victory to the Great Lord Badri Nath)|
|Engagements||North-West Frontier, First World War, Third Anglo-Afghan War, Waziristan Campaign, Second World War, First Kashmir War 1947, Sino-Indian War, Second Kashmir War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil War of 1999|
|A Maltese Cross with Ashoka Emblem|
The Garhwal Rifles is a light infantry or 'rifle' regiment of the Indian Army. It was originally raised as the 39th Garhwal Rifles of the Bengal Army, became part of the old Indian Army, and received its present name on Indian independence. It served during the Frontier campaigns of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, as well in both the World Wars and the wars fought after Independence. Mainly made up of Garhwali soldiers, this regiment has a distinguished record and a unique identity. Today it is made up of more than 25,000 soldiers, organised into nineteen regular battalions (i.e. 2nd to 19th), the Garhwal Scouts who are stationed permanently at Joshimath and two battalions of the Territorial Army including 121 Inf Bn TA and 127 Inf Bn TA (Eco). The 1st Battalion has been converted to a mechanised infantry unit as part of the Mechanised Infantry Regiment as its 6th battalion.
The regimental insignia is based on the defunct Royal Green Jackets as they are a designated rifle regiment.
Soldiers recruited into the Garhwal Rifles are from the Garhwal Hills. Garhwal consists almost entirely of rugged mountain ranges running in all directions, and separated by narrow valleys which in some cases become deep gorges or ravines.
Millions of boys have left their mountain villages of Uttarakhand in search of good jobs or a better life than in the hills. For Uttarakhandi soldiers to enlist, it has been common practice to leave the villages in the hills in search of adventure and fortune, indeed it has become a tradition in Uttarakhand, which still continues unabated. Paharis (the people "of the mountains") have always played a role in defending the frontiers of the Republic of India.
"Garhwal" is the land of many 'Garhs' meaning forts. This region was made up of many small forts which were ruled by chieftains. Garhwal originally consisted of 52 petty chieftainships, each chief with his own independent fortress (garh). The rulers of Garhwal remained independent and repeatedly expelled the attacks of the Mughal rulers of Delhi. During the 19th century, the Gurkhas attacked Garhwal and drove the rulers of Garhwal down to the plains. Thereafter the rulers of Garhwal, with the help of the British forces in India, regained their kingdom.
The Regimental Training Centre and Headquarters is located at Lansdowne. Named after Lord Lansdowne who founded the place in 1887, Lansdowne, is one of the, albeit small, beautiful hill stations in the north Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is situated 45 km from Kotdwara en route Kotdwar-Pauri road in the Pauri Garhwal district. The training centre was built on the site of the old Kaludanda Fort. In 2003, the Garhwal Rifles Regimental Centre, Lansdowne was awarded the Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar (Indira Gandhi Environment Award), by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Prior to 1887, there was no separate battalion of the Garhwali soldiers. They used to be recruited in the Gorkha regiments, Bengal Infantry and Punjab Frontier Force. Impressed by their simplicity, honesty, courage and dedication, the British government decided to form a separate battalion for the Garhwali soldiers. The Garhwal Rifles was raised in 1887 to give the Garhwali hillmen their own regiment. This was propagated by Field Marshal Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts, VC, who realized that many Garhwalis had served in Gurkha regiments, and majority of the early awards to Gurkha regiments were actually won by Garhwalis soldiers.
On May 5, 1887, the first battalion was constituted under the command of Lieutenant Colonel E. P. Mainwaring at Almora. It was designated the 2nd Battalion, 3rd (Kumaon) Gurkha Regiment, and it comprised six companies of Garhwalis and two of Gurkhas. On November 4 of the same year, this battalion reached Kalundanda in Garhwal. In 1890, Kalundanda was renamed as Lansdowne after the then Viceroy of India. In 1891, the two Gurkha companies were dropped and the battalion was redesignated the 39th (The Garhwal Rifles) Regiment of Bengal Infantry. This was the first all Garhwali battalion.
Following this, the Garhwalis served along the Tibet border, in the Chin Hills and on the North-East and North-West Frontiers of India, where they earned the battle honour 'Punjab Frontier'. In 1901, another battalion was raised as part of the Bengal Infantry. This was designated the 49th (The Garhwal Rifles) Regiment of Bengal Infantry. Later that same year, this battalion and the 39th were regimented together to form the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 39th Garhwal Rifles.
The First World War (1914–18)
In the First World War, the Garhwal Rifles were involved in the war's first trench raid on 9/10 November 1914. The 1st and 2nd Battalions saw action in the trenches in France, where Naik Darwan Singh Negi and Rifleman Gabar Singh Negi were both awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest military bravery award of the British Empire. Members of the regiment also earned many other bravery awards including: 6 Distinguished Service Orders, 25 Military Crosses, 14 Indian Orders of Merit and 21 Indian Distinguished Service Medals. There were also a number of foreign awards, including French, Russian and Romanian awards.
The 3rd Battalion was raised in 1916 and the 4th Battalion in 1917, this battalion became the 1st Kumaon Rifles in 1918, but the 4th Battalion was raised again in October 1918. These two battalions were raised in order to maintain security in India whilst the Indian Army fought overseas. The Garhwal Rifles received the rare honour of being conferred with the 'Royal' title, which was made official on 2 February 1921.
The Kotkai War (1919–1920)
During the Waziristan Campaign of 1919–1920, sometimes referred to as the Kotkai War, Lieutenant William David Kenny of the 4th/39th Garhwal Regiment won the Regiment's third Victoria Cross when he led a small force of men in a desperate counter-attack against a superior force of Mahsud tribesmen in order to allow the rest of his company to withdraw to safety. Kenny, along with the rest of his assault party, was killed in the action, and the gallantry award was made posthumously on 9 September 1920.
Link to the Indian Nationalist Movement
Against the backdrop of growing civil unrest and Indian nationalism in the 1930s, some historians have asserted that the Regiment fell into disfavour with the British following an incident at Peshawar on 23 April 1930, when a detachment of the 2/18 Garhwal Rifles apparently refused to obey an order to open fire on an unruly crowd that was causing a disturbance. Following the controversial arrest of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the Khudai Khidmatgar (nationalist satyagrahis) gathered to protest, and the troops were called out in response to the demonstration. What followed next is disputed — some historians have claimed that the crowd was peaceful and unarmed, and that the members of the Regiment were ordered to open fire by their British officers but, under the leadership of Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali refused to do so against unarmed civilians. It has been asserted that the whole incident galvanised the entire freedom movement. Other accounts, however, have painted a different picture. At the time, it was felt that the Garhwalis had failed in their duty, however, the official report following the incident cited evidence that the crowd had turned violent and that the regiment did in fact open fire, as per their orders, and that the crowd then dispersed.
The aftermath, however, seems clearer. Following the incident at Peshawar the Regiment received a black mark against its name, and the loyalty of its members was called into question. Matters were made worse when, the following day, two platoons refused to fall in, and several men declared that they wished to be discharged. Because of this, higher command believed that the battalion was disaffected and, as a result, the disaffected men were ordered to return their weapons and dismiss. Later the entire battalion was disarmed. A Court of Inquiry afterwards found that the men of the Regiment had acted properly according to the confused orders that they had received on the day of the incident in Peshawar, but on the subject of the incident the following day it was quite swift in handing out the punishments. The riflemen of the two platoons that had refused to fall in were all dismissed from the service, whilst of the seventeen non-commissioned officers, one received transportation for life, another was sentenced to fourteen years imprisonment and the other fifteen also received various smaller terms of imprisonment.
These punishments seem quite harsh in the circumstances, but probably serve to highlight the concern that the British had surrounding the incident at the time, when it was felt on both sides, not without reason, that British rule in India was coming to an end. This did not turn out to be completely correct, of course, for the Raj still had another seventeen years to run, but it almost certainly served as a portent of the future.
The Second World War (1939–45)
During the Second World War, five more battalions of the Garhwal Rifles were raised. These were: the 4th (re-raised having been converted into a training battalion and designated 10th Battalion earlier), the 5th, 6th, 7th and 25th (Garrison) battalion. The Regiment saw active service in almost all of the theatres of the war, including: Burma, Malaya, Egypt, Iraq, Eritrea, Abyssinia.
The 2nd and 5th Battalions were captured in the fall of Singapore and remained in captivity until the end of the war.
The Regiment's casualties during the war were high, with some 350 killed and approximately 1,400 wounded. However, whilst other regiments received due reward for their sacrifices, the Garhwal Regiment received very few — no Victoria Crosses — a fact which has never been explained, although there has been speculation that this was due in part to the memory of the 1930 Peshawar incident.
Following the war the 1st and 3rd Battalions served briefly in a garrison role in Sumatra and Italy before returning to India. The 4th Battalion was used to reconstitute the 2nd Battalion in May 1946. The 5th Battalion was not raised again and the 6th Battalion was disbanded at war's end.
After the formation of India in 1947 and the subsequent merger of the various states in India at the time, the Garhwal Princely State was among the first to be merged in with the Indian Union. Subsequently, the Regiment was transferred to the newly independent Indian Army. Following this, the Regiment was involved in the conflict in Jammu & Kashmir for a time, during which the 3rd Battalion's role with the 161st Brigade in the Uri-Punch linkup was of particular note.
In 1950, the Royal title was dropped from the Regiment's name when India became a Republic. Other regimental symbols that were associated with the British were also discontinued, although the regimental lanyard continued to be worn on the right shoulder in traditional 'Royal' fashion. In 1953, the Regiment contributed to the United Nations custodian force in Korea.
Indo-China War of 1962
The 4 Garhwal Rifles played a significant role in the India-China War of 1962. The sacrifice along the frontier of Garhwali lives was enormous, as the Indian Army was ill-prepared for the rapidly advancing Chinese. Badly equipped for high altitude combat, short on supplies, and reconnaissance of the enemy, the Indian troops struggled valiantly onward, despite fighting a losing war to both the invaders and frostbite. Indeed, one battalion of the Garhwal Rifles was surrounded and suffered many casualties in the short, but bloody engagement that followed. Rfn. Jaswant Singh Rawat of the 4 Garhwal Rifles (Mahavir Chakra — posthumously), was honoured after being executed, by the Chinese themselves. He has a temple in his honour at Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh).
Indo-Pakistan War of 1965
Battle of Gadra City
The 1 Garhwal Rifles were deployed along the border in Rajasthan Sector. The battalion commanded by Lt. Col K.P.Lahiri launched attack on Gadra City at 6.45 a.m. and captured it by 1.00 p.m. In the morning of 18 September one company of the battalion repulsed Pakistani attack who fled leaving behind 12 bodies and 1 Jeep. On 22 September the battalion offered a stubborn resistance to the Pakistani multi pronged offensive to recapture Gadra City and were supported by Pakistan Air Force. But the battalion stood the ground and repulsed all the attacks.
Battle of Buttur Dograndi
The 8 Garhwal Rifles played a vital role in the Battle of Buttur Dograndi where the Major Abdul Rafi Khan of 8 Garhwal Rifles had managed to regroup his scattered companies after the first failed assault and it was decided that A Sqn Poona Horse along with 8 Garhwal would launch another attack on Buttur Dograndi which had in the meantime been occupied by some elements of 3 Frontier Force. D company of the 8 Garhwalis led the advance and met only minor opposition and the village was retaken.On 17 September, Pakistan's 4th Corps artillery sporadically fired on the Garhwali positions with medium and heavy guns. Later during the day some enemy armour also appeared with infantry. The Garhwalis fought on with their small arms, well concealed as they were in the thick crops. Two tanks ( 25 Cavalry) entered the defended area and started spraying the Garhwalis with their machine guns from close range. Rifleman Balwant Singh Bisht took up a rocket launcher and managed to put one of these tanks out of action. He was himself blown to pieces by a shell shot from the tank gun. Casualties were heavy on both sides but 3FF and the tank troop had to withdraw against the determination of the Garhwalis. Although the later battle saw the Garhwalis being ordered to withdraw under heavy artillery fire of the enemy as the position had become untenable, yet the determination of Major Khan allowed them to withdraw to safety, but Major Khan stayed back with the wounded who could not be evacuated. Major Khan was awarded Vir Chakra posthumously in the battle. After the battle statistics of killed were 2 officers and 47 other ranks. On the other hand 3rd Battalion The Frontier Force Regiment: Killed 3 JCO's and 64 other ranks, wounded 3 JCO's and 100 other ranks.
The 2nd Battalion battalion was part of the battle during Operation Hill. On October 6/7, 1965 the battalion was nominated by the GOC for the task of attacking and capturing the area where the Pakistani infiltrators had managed to build up their defences. The attack by the battalion was launched with great courage and determination. However, due to wrong intelligence assessment of enemy strength and disposition with insufficient time to reorient itself and very little fire support, the battalion suffered heavy casualties and the attack was beaten back by a battalion strength of Pakistanis. The battalion took part in second attack on enemy position in conjunction with other battalions. In this operation, B company laid an ambush and captured one Pakistani officer. Capt C N Singh of the "Superb Second" won the only Mahavir Chakra of the regiment during the 1965 operations. Reacting to specific information about presence of infiltrators, Capt CN Singh attacked them with great ferocity and valour. In a close quarter hand-to-hand fight, he was fatally wounded and later succumbed to his injuries. For his gallant leadership and valour, he was awarded the coveted Maha Vir Chakra. after Major Khan death Maj HS Rautela took the command and successfully fought and evaucated the injured till the replacement could arrive. He later won the Sena Medal for his gallantary when he captured the village of Gurkhi in Pakaishtan and was named after his name. The battalion won 1 MVC, 2 SMs and 5 COAS Commendation Cards.
During the 1971 war with Pakistan, 11th Garhwal was in the Eastern theatre with the 6th Mountain Division under Maj. Gen P.C. Reddy. 2nd Garhwal Rifles was with 2nd Mountain Division and was allotted to 101 Comn Z for thust upon Dhaka itself. 12th Battalion was in the Bengal area for support. All the units performed all the tasks satisfactorily.
The 5th Garhwal Rifles was tasked in the Battle of Hilli. In the third phase of the battle, 5 Garhwal Rifles, were given a very difficult task of capturing several small villages of Basudevpur, Hakimpur and Rangapara. Each attack had to be separately organised, with adequate mortar and artillery fire. The Garhwalis emerged victorious.
Established as a single class regiment, the Garhwal Rifles remained so until 1984. Following a national policy review, the 18th Garhwal Joint Battalion was constituted in 1985 along with the merger of companies of Jat, Dogra and Maratha regiments.
The Kargil Operations in 1999
The Garhwal Rifles had the proud privilege of playing a decisive role in dislodging Pakistani forces and recapturing Tiger Hill during the Kargil conflict of 1999. The Chief of Army Staff made a special immediate award of a "Unit Citation" to 18th Battalion, The Garhwal Rifles, for their meritorious and gallant performance during the battles of Point 5140 on the night of 19/20 June and Point 4700 on the night of 27/28 June 1999, in Dras Sector. This award was received by their commanding officer, Col. Anshu Trivedi.
Capt. Jintu Gogoi,17th Garhwal Rifles was lost in heavy artillery exchange with the enemy in the Batalik Sector. Not to be outdone the 17th Garhwal Rifles and the 10th Garhwal Rifles performed above all expectations during the Kargil War.
With so many families in the hills of Garhwal and Kumaon who have sons (and daughters) in the military, the conflict in Kashmir has taken a heavy toll. The Garhwal Rifles, as well as other Himalayan regiments (the Gurkha Rifles, Ladakh Scouts, Naga Regiment, and Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry) were all entrusted with operations in Kargil in 1999. They joined their Sikh, Rajasthani, Mahar, and Bihari brothers as a multicultural and multi-faith force on the frontlines, suffering the brunt of casualties in defence of the state.
Operation Sarp Vinash 2003
The Indian Army's Northern Command conducted a complex militant camp-busting operation called Sarp Vinash with skill and precision, easily one of the landmark counter-terrorism operations in Jammu & Kashmir–Hillkaka area. Hillkaka was no Kargil in its strategic importance but merely a staging post for Pakistani Muslim militants. Operation Sarp Vinash was a division-size operation involving seven battalions and two brigade headquarters. Spearheaded by 9 Para Special Forces, six other units of 163 Infantry Brigade and 12 RR sector took part. These were 2/4 Gorkha Rifles, 15 Garhwal Rifles, 4 Garhwal Rifles, 16 and 20 Rashtriya Rifles. It was estimated that up to 100 militants were in and around the Hillkaka hideout spread out in the forest when Special Forces struck in the initial raid. They killed 13 Pakistani militants and captured two of whom one died later. In subsequent combing operations which lasted 10 days, 4 Garhwal Rifles ambushed seven militants near Haripur while they were attempting to cross over into Srinagar. Altogether, 45 Muslim militants were killed against a loss of four soldiers killed and two wounded. Substantial recoveries were made. Approximately 60 caches and hideouts were busted yielding 20 AK 47 rifles, 5 PIKA guns, two sniper rifles and unspecified quantities of grenade launchers, self-loading rifles and 45 kg of plastic explosives. In addition substantial quantities of radio sets, and other communication equipment was also recovered besides rations enough to feed 500 men for two weeks.
- 1st Battalion (Converted to 6 Mech Inf)
- 2nd Battalion
- 3rd Battalion
- 4th Battalion
- 5th Battalion
- 6th Battalion
- 7th Battalion
- 8th Battalion
- 9th Battalion
- 10th Battalion
- 11th Battalion
- 12th Battalion
- 13th Battalion
- 14th Battalion
- 15th Battalion
- 16th Battalion
- 17th Battalion
- 18th Battalion
- 19th Battalion
- 121 Inf Bn TA (Garh Rif)
- 127 Inf Bn TA (Garh Rif-Eco)
So far the Regiment has earned 30 battle honours. Of these, five have been awarded in the post-Independence period. The Regiment has also won the following theatre honours: Jammu & Kashmir — 1947–48, Ladakh — 1962, Punjab — 1965, Rajasthan — 1965, East Pakistan — 1971, Kargil — 1999.
Battle Honours Pre Independence
- Punjab Frontier 1897-1898
- La Bassee 1914
- Armentiers 1914
- Festubert 1914-1915
- Neuve Chapelle 1915
- Aubers 1915
- France and Flanders 1914-1915
- Egypt 1915-1916
- Macedonia 1918
- Khan Baghdadi 1918
- Sharqat 1918
- Macepotamia 1917-1918
- Gallabat 1940
- Barentu 1941
- Keren 1941
- Massawa 1941
- Amba Alagi 1941
- Kuantan 1942
- Yenangyaung 1942
- Monywa 1942
- Citta Di Castello 1944
- North Arakan 1944
- Ngakyedauk Pass 1944
- Ramree 1944
- Taungup 1945
Battle Honours Post Independence
- Tithwal 1947-48
- J&K 1947-48
- Ladakh 1962
- Nuranang 1965
- Buttar Dograndi 1965
- Gadra Road 1965
- Punjab 1965
- Rajasthan 1965
- Hilli 1971
- East Pakistan 1971.
Theatre Honour Second World War
- North Africa (1940–43)
- Malaya (1941–42)
- Burma (1942–45)
- Italy (1943–45)
Decorations (Pre Independence)
Victoria Cross Recipients
- Naik Darwan Singh Negi - First World War, Festubert-France, 1914
- Rifleman Gabbar Singh (posthumous) - First World War, Neuve Chapelle, 1915
- Lt. William David Kenny (posthumous) - Waziristan Campaign, 1920
Soldiers from the Garhwal Regiment were among the first Indian soldiers to receive the Victoria Cross — which was, at the time, the highest decoration a soldier in the British or Commonwealth Forces could receive for gallantry — with two soldiers receiving this honour for their actions during the First World War. A British officer of the 4th/39th Garhwal Rifles, also received a Victoria Cross during the Waziristan Campaign in 1920.
Decorations (Post Independence)
Ashok Chakra Recipient:
- Naik Bhavani Datt Joshi (posthumous), June 1984, Operation Blue Star, Amritsar, India for his actions during the operation against Sikh separatists
Mahavir Chakra Recipient:
- Lieutenant-Colonel Kaman Singh, Indo-Pakistan War, 1948.
- Lieutenant-Colonel B.M Bhattacharya, Sino-Indian war, 1962
- Rifleman Jaswant Singh Rawat (posthumous), Sino-Indian war, 1962
- Captain Chandranarayan Singh, Indo-Pakistan war, 1965
Of the other Gallantry award winners the following are of particular note -
- During the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, Rifleman Makar Singh Negi of 6 Garhwal Rifles received the Vir Chakra for exceptional bravery & valour, during the Battle of Nawanpind.
- In 1989, Rifleman Kuldeep Singh Bhandari of 5 Garhwal Rifles received the Vir Chakra for his bravery, leadership qualities and dedication to duty.
- In 2003, Captain Vivek Mishra of 16 Garhwal Rifles received the Shaurya Chakra for his bravery, leadership qualities and dedication to duty.
- Col Ajay Kothiyal received Kirti Chakra in 2004. He also led the mission which made military history and record as the first military to use ski in a mountaineering expedition. He used ski to come down the mountain - Mt. Trisul (7120 m)
- Capt Vishal Bhandral (posthumous) Kirti Chakra in September 2006 near Bandipura in Baramulla district, J&K.
The 12th Reunion of the Garhwal Rifles was organized at its Regimental Centre in Lansdowne in June 2004. The highlight of the two-day celebrations was the special sainik sammelan presided over by Maj Gen MC Bhandari, the Colonel of Garhwal Rifles and Garhwal Scouts.
The Quasqui Centennial (125 yrs) Celebrations
The regiment shall be celebrating completion of its 125 years of valour laden history during Oct-Nov 2012. The occasion will be celebrated as a mega event spread over five days from 28 Oct to 01 Nov. 28-29 Oct are being dedicated to the Biennial Conference while the balance of the days till 01 Nov will be the days for celebrating the Quasqui Centennial of the Garhwal Rifles. Guests would be able to leave by afternoon of 01 Nov 2012.
The Regimental Centre — Lansdowne
Lansdowne, at a height of 5,800 ft (1,800 m) above sea level, is the recruitment centre of the Garhwal Rifles. On October 1, 1921 the regimental centre celebrated its first founder's day. Now October 1 is celebrated as the raising day of the battalion. After Independence, the name of the centre was changed to Garhwal Rifles Regimental Centre. The rigorous drills during the training helps to infuse a sense of discipline in every recruit. Special emphasis is laid on physical fitness, mental toughness and weapon handling. After successful completion of the 34-week training course, a Garhwali youth is turned into a soldier. The soldier is then trained for two more weeks in counter-insurgency operations.
Colonels of the Garhwal Rifles and Scouts
- Maj. Gen. J.C. Ramola
- Maj. Gen. G. Bharat Singh, MC
- Maj. Gen. Hira Lal Atal
- Maj. Gen. H.N. Shingal PVSM, AVSM
- Lt. Gen. K. Mahendra Singh, PVSM (1979–1987)
- Lt. Gen. R.V. Kulkarni, PVSM, UYSM
- Maj. Gen. SPS Kanwar
- Brig. Abinash Dhillon
- Brig. Jagmohan Rawat
- Maj. Gen. Satish Sondhi
- Maj. Gen. Anil Walter Ranbhise
- Lt Gen Dr Mohan Chandra Bhandari,PVSM, AVSM*
- Lt. Gen. Paramjit Singh, PVSM, AVSM, VSM
- Lt Gen B.K. Chengappa, AVSM
- Lt Gen Syed Ata Hasnain, UYSM, AVSM, SM, VSM**
See also↑Jump back a section
- Their involvement with regiments such as the Garhwal Rifles and the Kumaon Regiment reflects the participation of the hill people in the defence forces and their commitment to the Indian nation.
- Sharma, p. 240
- Sharma, p. 239
- "List of Awardees". Ministry of Environment and Forests.
- Sharma, p. 241
- Sharma, p. 242
- Gabar Singh Negi
- Sharma, p. 246
- The London Gazette: . 7 September 1920. Retrieved 2008-01-15.
- Kaul, p. 36
- Sharma, p. 247
- This was the opinion of the official Court of Inquiry, as cited by Sharma, p. 263, footnote 13
- Sharma, p. 252
- Sharma, p.248
- Sharma, p. 253
- Sen p. ?
- Sharma, p. 254
- The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - National Capital Region
- Maxwell, p. 330
- The Poona Horse in the Battle of Buttur Dograndi September 1965
- 2 Battalion, Garhwal Rifles
- Surrender at Dacca - Birth of a nation - Lt. Gen J.F.R. Jacob, Manohar Publishers, 1997
- New Age: Victory Day Special
- The Lessons of Op Sarp Vinash
- For many years Indian soldiers were not eligible to receive the Victoria Cross, instead they received the Indian Order of Merit, which was considered to be equivalent. This was changed in 1911, however, when all members of the British Empire and Commonwealth forces became eligible for the Victoria Cross. On a further note, there were five VCs awarded to Indian soldiers during the First World War, and the Garhwal Regiment had the honour of winning two of them.
- Barthorp, p. 158
- "Ashok Chakra for Triveni Singh". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 26 January 2004.
- R-Day awards: Five to get Kirti Chakra, Shaurya for 25
- Barthorp, Michael. 2002. Afghan Wars and the North-West Frontier 1839–1947. Cassell. London. ISBN 0-304-36294-8.
- Dalve, J.P. (Brig.). Himalayan Blunder. Natraj Publishers
- Das, Chand. 1997. Hours of Glory: Famous Battles of the Indian Army, 1801–1971. Vision Books.
- Evatt, J. Historical Record of the Royal Garhwal Rifles Vol I, 1887–1922. Gale & Polden.
- Jacob, JFR Lt. Gen. 1997. Surrander at Dacca, birth of a nation, Manohar Publishers
- Kaul, Suvir. 2002. The Partitions of Memory: The Afterlife of the Division of India. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21566-8.
- Maxwell, Neville. 1970. India's China War. Pantheon Books.
- Palit, D.K. (Brig.) War in the High Himalayas
- Prasad, S.N & Chakravorty, B. 1976. History of the Custodian Force (India) in Korea, 1953–54. Historical Section, Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
- Sen, L.P. (Lt.Gen.). 1998. Slender was the thread. Orient Longman
- Sharma, Gautam. 1990. Valour and Sacrifice: Famous Regiments of the Indian Army. Allied Publishers. ISBN 81-7023-140-X.