Tanzania People's Defence Force
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2007)|
|Tanzania People's Defence Force (TPDF)
Jeshi la Ulinzi la Wananchi wa Tanzania (JWTZ)
|Founded||1 September 1964|
Air Force Command
|Minister of Defense||Shamsi Vuai Nahodha|
|Chief of staff||General Davis Mwamunyange|
|Conscription||18 years (voluntary)|
|9,985,445, age 16–49 (2010 est.)|
|5,860,339 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.),
5,882,279 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.)
|512,294 males (2010 est.),
514,164 females (2010 est.)
|Active personnel||27,000 (ranked 85th)|
|Percent of GDP||0.2 (2005 est.)|
|History||The Tanganyika Rifles
Uganda–Tanzania War (1978-79)
Mozambican Civil War
2008 invasion of Anjouan
|Ranks||Rank and insignia of the Tanzanian Armed Forces|
The Tanzania People’s Defence Force (TPDF) (Swahili: Jeshi la Ulinzi la Wananchi wa Tanzania : JWTZ ) are the armed forces of Tanzania They were set up in September 1964. From its inception, it was ingrained in the troops that they were a people’s force under civilian control. They were always reminded of their difference from the colonial armed forces. Unlike some of its neighbors, Tanzania has never suffered a coup d'etat or civil war.
The TPDF was given a very clear mission: to defend Tanzania and everything Tanzanian, especially the people and their political ideology. Tanzanian citizens are able to volunteer for military service from 15 years of age, and 18 years of age for compulsory military service upon graduation from secondary school. Conscript service obligation was 2 years as of 2004.
The formation of the TPDF was a result of the disbandment of the Tanganyika Rifles after a mutiny in 1964. Soldiers of the regiment mutinied on 19 January 1964. The Mutiny began in Colito Barracks in Dar es Salaam, then spread to with . Soldiers of the 1st Battalion, Tanganyika Rifles deposed their officers an occupied key government buildings, including the State House (the President's residence), police stations, radio stations, and transport terminals. President Nyerere and Vice President Kawawa went into hiding to protect themselves. Minister of External Affairs and Defence Oscar Kambona negotiated with the soldiers. On 20 January 1964 soldiers at Kalewa barracks in Tabora, plus the company stationed at Nachingwea, a new barracks, followed suit. Looting of shops took place. On 25 January 1964 it was decided to request British aid, and 45 Commando Royal Marines from HMS Centaur were dispatched. The mutineers were quickly routed and subdued.
The mutiny was over pay, promotions, the removal of British officers and Africanisation. Julius Nyerere conceded that the "soldiers had genuine grievances and the demands presented a perfectly reasonable case." However, he could not tolerate a mutiny. The mutiny raised questions about the place of the military in the newly independent Tanganyika — a military under a foreign command and not integrated into the country’s system.
After the mutiny, the army was disbanded and fresh recruits were sought within the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) youth wing as a source. For the first few years of the TPDF, the army was even smaller than the 2,000 strong Tanganyika Rifles, the air force was minuscule, and no navy had yet been formed. However the army was four battalions strong by 1967.
From 1964 to 1974, the TPDF was commanded by Marisho S.H. Sarakikya, trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, who was promoted from lieutenant to brigadier in 1964 and became the force's first commander.
In 1972 the IISS listed the army with 10,000 personnel, four infantry battalions, 20 T-59, 14 Chinese T-62 light tanks, some BTR-40 and BTR-152, Soviet field artillery and Chinese mortars. 'Spares [were] short and not all equipment was serviceable.' (IISS 1972-73, p. 40)
In 1992 the IISS listed the army with 45,000 personnel (some 20,000 conscripts), 3 division headquarters, 8 infantry brigades, one tank brigade, two field artillery battalions, two Anti-aircraft artillery battalions (6 batteries), two mortar, two anti-tank battalions, one engineer regiment (battalion sized), and one Surface to air missile battalion with SA-3 and SA-6. Equipment included 30 Chinese Type 59 and 32 T-54/55 main battle tanks.
TPDF officers also trained African National Congress fighters in Morogoro. TPDF officers also participated in the training of the new Democratic Republic of Congo army, but were later withdrawn because of the war in the Congo.
The most significant TPDF involvement in the Uganda-Tanzania War following a Ugandan invasion of Kagera in 1978. Idi Amin with the help of Libya, accused Julius Nyerere of being at the root of his troubles and of waging war against Uganda. Amin invaded Tanzanian territory on 1 November 1978 and annexed Kagera. Julius Nyerere told the nation that Tanzania had the reason to fight Amin, was intent on fighting Amin and had the ability to defeat him. The war effort was not for the army alone on 22 November 1978, but for the entire population, the nation understood him and the reaction was predictable. In April 1979, Tanzania took Kampala and Amin fled the country to Libya and eventually ending up in Saudi Arabia after falling out of favour with Muammar al-Gaddafi. Unlike Amin’s soldiers, the TPDF had a relaxed relationship with the locals and at times went out of their way to assist them.
The TPDF employs a deliberate policy of drawing its officers from various regions of the country. This policy has ensured a development of a national force that has tended to promote stability.
- 5 × infantry brigade
- 1 × tank brigade
- 3 × artillery battalion
- 2 × air defence artillery battalion
- 1 × mortar battalion
- 2 × anti-tank battalion
- 121st Engineer Regiment (battalion size; unit identification from usaraf.army.mil and Flickr)
- 1 × central logistic/support group
Current senior officers include:
- Chief of Staff: Lt. General Samuel Albert Ndomba
- Commander of Land Forces Maj Gen Salum Mustafa Kijuu
- Chief of National Service: Brigadier General Raphael Muhuga
Air Force Command
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2012)|
|TPDF Air Force Command
Kamandi ya Jeshi la Anga
MiG-21 fighter aircrafts at Mwanza Airport
|Commander||Maj. Gen. Festo Ulomi|
|Fighter||F-7, F-5, F-6, MiG-21MF|
The current Commander of Air Force Command: is Maj Gen Ulomi.
A few of the Tanzanian air wing's transport remain serviceable. However, its Shenyang F-5s, and Chengdu F-7s are reported to fly rarely because of airworthiness problems. Tanzania's long coastline means that transports are also used for patrol flights.
In Tanzania, early 1980s; Contrary to what is usually reported, Tanzania never purchased any J-7Is from China. Instead, the Jeshi La Wananchi La Tanzania (Tanzanian People's Defence Force Air Wing, TPDF/AW) was given 14 MiG-21MFs and two MiG-21Us by the USSR in 1974. Many of these were lost in different accidents due to the poor training, and two were said to have been lost when their pilots defected. Nevertheless, the few surviving examples took part in the war against Uganda, in 1978-1979, when they saw much action, even if one was shot down in a case of friendly fire (it was lost to SA-7s fired by Tanzanian troops). The Tanzanian Army captured seven MiG-21MFs and one MiG-21U trainer from the Ugandan Air Force, as well as a considerable amount of spare parts. All of these were flown out to Mwanza AB, to enter service with the TPDF/AW. In 1998, Tanzania purchased four additional MiG-21MFs from the Ukraine, but these were reportedly in a very poor shape, and not used very often. Meanwhile, in 1980, an order for 10 F-7Bs and two TF-7s was issued to China, and in 1997 also two F-7Ns were purchased from Iran, together with four ex-Iraqi Air Force transports of an unknown type. Today, no Russian-supplied MiG-21s remain in service with the TPDF/AW, and only three or four F-7s remain operational. The TPDF/AW MiG-21MFs are now confirmed to have carried serials - in black or green - underneath the cockpit, but no details about these are known.
|Tanzania Naval Command
Kamandi ya Jeshi la Majini
|Navy Commander||Maj. Gen. S. S. Omar|
The navy operates 7 fast attack craft and 12 patrol boats.
The current Commander of the Naval Command: is Rear Admiral (Maj Gen) SS Omar.
Former Generals and high-ranking officers
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2012)|
- Major General Marisho Sarakikya 1964-1974;
- Lieutenant General Abdallah Twalipo 1974-1980;
- General David Msuguri 1980-1988;
- General Ernest Kiaro 1988-1994;
- General Robert Mboma 1994-2002
- General George Waitara 2002-2007
- General Davis Mwamunyange 2007-
Chiefs of Staff
- Brigadier General Tumainiel Kiwelu 1975-1980;
- Major General Imrani Kombe 1980-1983;
- Major General M.N. Mwakalindile 1983-1988;
- Lieutenant General Kiwelu 1988-1994;
- Lieutenant General G. F. Sayore from 1994–2001
- Brigadier General Francis J.Louis 1998-2003:
- Lieutenant General Iddi Gahu 2001-2006
- Lieutenant General Mabula Kitula
- "CIA World Factbook: Tanzania". The World Factbook. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Parsons, 2003, 168.
- Irving Kaplan, Tanzania: A Country Study, Library of Congress Country Studies, First Edition, 1978, p. 248–249.
- IISS Military Balance 1992-93, p. 211.
- "Tanzania". Janes World Armies. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Tanzanian military aviation OrBat
- General Sarakikya attends Royal Military Academy's 50th reunion in Sandhurst, Arusha Times, August 13–19, 2011.
- Irving Kaplan, Tanzania: A Country Study, Library of Congress Country Studies, First Edition, 1978, p.249, says that Twalipo took command in 1974.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2005 edition".
- Tanzania Refutes Cross Border Shelling
- Simon Baynham, Civil-Military Relations in Post-Independent Africa
- Allison Herrick, Area Handbook for Tanzania, American University, 1968
- Irving Kaplan, Tanzania: A Country Study, Library of Congress Country Studies, First Edition, 1978, Second Edition, 1987.
- Murdo Morrison), ed. (2006). "World Air Forces". Flight International (Number 5063 ed.). London: Flight Global. p. 82. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Brian S. MacDonald (1990). "Africa armed forces". Military spending in developing countries (Number 5063 ed.). London. ISBN 978-0-88629-314-7.
- Timothy Parsons, The 1964 Army Mutinies and the Making of Modern East Africa
- Official website of the Ministry of Tanzanian Defence and National Service Tanzania
- Official website of the Tanzania People's Defence Forces
- Tanzania Civil-military Relations and Political Stability
- Lillian Kingazi, Enhancing Human Resource Capabilities in the TPDF