|WikiProject Plants||(Rated Stub-class)|
|WikiProject Food and drink||(Rated Stub-class, Low-importance)|
"contrary to soy, can be grown in more temperate to cool climates"
Plenty of soy is grown in temperate climes (like the US great plains), so something is wrong with this statement. Bhudson (talk) 19:53, 1 April 2008 (UTC)
I agree that soy can be grown in temperate climes. Lupin even grows on mountain tops in Canada though, so it seems even hardier - perhaps that's what they were getting at - a cooler, even semi-arctic or tundra like climate can still support lupins. ScholK (talk) 05:13, 5 October 2009 (UTC)
Lupin or Lupini bean toxicity and safe preparation
I agree I'd like to add the following cautionary info with the heading above to this otherwise good article. Lupin beans must be soaked for at least seven days in multiple changes of water daily to remove the bitterness. This is a serious matter - the bitterness is a toxic anticholinergic alkaloid compound that can kill humans and animals. While it is unpalatable, some people like bitter herbs and may mistakenly prepare and eat lupini without enough soaking if they haven't learned of its unique preparation requirements. There are several references in medical literature to poisoning caused by errors in lupini preparation, but the beans are rarely sold with instructions.
Safe preparation involves soaking the bean overnight in four parts water to one part beans, draining, boiling in the same ratio of water to beans with salt, draining, placing beans in a bucket under a quickly running cold tap for seven to fourteen days until the bitter taste is gone, then boiling with salt for two hours until the bean is no longer crunchy and pickling in salt and vinegar and water brine according to a Portugese importer who sold me a package.
Symptoms of lupin bean poisoning (in cooked food) include dilated unresponsive pupils, flushed face, high heart rate and blood pressure, tremors, difficulty with or slurred speech, un-coordination, disorientation, dizziness, burning dry mouth, stomach pain, anxiety, and reduced cognitive function. Lupin bean poisoning is uncommon enough that poison control responders may not suspect it. It is important to store lupini beans in their original container so that the label is present in case it must be identified if someone becomes ill from eating poorly prepared beans. Lupin beans resemble fava and lima beans to people who are not from cultures familiar with the tradtional preparation methods that ensure safety and minimize bitterness. Given the increased public interest in multicultural ingredients, mediterranean diets and legume eating for health (in a world where most legumes are safe to eat cooked as a major source of dietary protein without special preparation), a requirement for preparation instructions on lupin bean packaging at the retail level might be a good public health idea.
References: http://www.scib.gc.ca/pls/pp/ppack.info?p_psn=32&p_type=anim&p_sci=sci&p_x=px (scroll to human section). http://journals.lww.com/euro-emergencymed/Abstract/2004/04000/Anticholinergic_toxicity_associated_with_lupin.14.aspx http://isrjem.org/Isrjem_June08.Antichol%20Kurzbaum_Postprod.pdf - Medical report of emergency room visit related to lupin consumption after improper alkaloid removal. (I have also eaten the improperly prepared beans which tasted relatively bitter, and had the same frightening, undiagnosed symptoms within an hour of dinner). http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/TR3.pdf - Australian government evaluation of Lupin food safety with literature review.
http://books.google.ca/books?id=gC91F_SwVEUC&pg=PA212&lpg=PA212&dq=lupin+poisoning&source=bl&ots=CKuL2xmEf-&sig=8enaYuMlxToijdXLE5Pg98JGi6k&hl=en&ei=uHTJSvjXK5OqswOVqZGiBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=lupin%20poisoning&f=false http://books.google.ca/books?id=ibxfK1l6oXoC&pg=PT133&lpg=PT133&dq=lupin+poisoning&source=bl&ots=GanePKWMUr&sig=b-MUQDnstaYTkQhPJvlF5a_Hl8Y&hl=en&ei=cHbJSuSUL4bgsQO_jdShBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=lupin%20poisoning&f=false http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/wellbeing/lowgi-bean-can-be-fatal-20090803-e6pw.html http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/159920.php
Other references to toxicity and uses of lupin: http://museum.gov.ns.ca/poison/?section=species&id=99 http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lupins50.html - describes old knowledge of lupins, doesn't discuss human eating methods. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/816548-overview - many plant toxins currently causing emergency visits including lupin. http://www.mombu.com/gardening/gardening/t-lupinus-poisonous-have-winter-3020488.html
This is a very thorough blog on the history of lupin cultivation by a researcher in Russia. It explains the hundreds of lupin varieties, and why not all lupins are low-alkaloid or suitable for consumption without much processing. the article explains the historic movements of different regional varieties across continents by the agricultural industry and researchers looking for ways to increase protein and forage yields with reduced land quality: http://lupins-bk.blogspot.com/2006/07/history-of-lupin-domestication.html
ScholK (talk) 05:13, 5 October 2009 (UTC)