Spider-Man's powers and equipment
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Spider-Man's powers, abilities, and equipment are used by Marvel Comics superhero Spider-Man in tandem to combat his many foes. He receives most of his powers when he is bitten by a radioactive common house spider (Amazing Fantasy #15). He uses his technical skill to develop equipment and weapons to complement his powers, and wears a number of costumes, many of which have special properties.
When Peter Parker was bitten by a lethally irradiated spider, radioactive mutagenic enzymes in the spider's venom quickly caused numerous body-wide changes. Immediately after the bite, he was granted his original powers: primarily superhuman strength, reflexes, and balance; the ability to cling tenaciously to most surfaces; and a subconscious precognitive sense of danger, which he called a "spider-sense."
Several biologists on the History Channel’s Spider-Man Tech stated the effect of a radioactive spider bite (if any) would not be nearly enough to cause a mutation in a human body. However, they said the use of "genetically engineered" spiders from the live-action movie and the Ultimate continuity was more plausible. Instead of radioactive venom, the bite would have to carry a powerful retro virus (similar to HIV) that would spread through the body by taking over neighboring cells and actually becoming ingrained in the person’s DNA. They illustrated this by showing the results of an experiment where glow genes from deep sea Jelly fish were introduced into the embryos of lab mice. The resulting mice were born with the glow gene as a part of their own DNA and glowed light green whenever an ultraviolet light was shone on them.
Generally enhanced physiology
Spider-Man's overall metabolic efficiency has been greatly increased, and the composition of his skeleton, connective tissues, muscles, and nervous system has all been enhanced. Originally, Peter Parker wore glasses, but after the spider bite, his vision became 20/20, allowing him to see perfectly after his spectacles were broken by Flash Thompson. Spider-Man is capable of healing injuries faster and more extensively than ordinary humans, though it is considerably inferior to the healing abilities of individuals such as Wolverine or The Hulk. However, Spider-Man is capable of healing from injuries as severe as broken bones within a matter of hours. During a battle with a villain called the Masked Marauder, Spider-Man is rendered completely blind. However, during a visit to an eye specialist, it is revealed that Spider-Man is already healing only hours after being blasted. After about 2 days, Spider-Man's eyesight has recovered to perfection and his 20/20 vision is restored, although his eyes are sensitive for about a day after, shown when Carrion flashed a bright light in his face. Afterwards, his eyes are completely healed.
Following the events of "The Other", Spider-Man permanently had some of his abilities increased, including his healing. During "Civil War," (months after the events of "The Other") he is ambushed by the Rhino and is injured. However, he heals completely by the end of the issue without medical attention and mentions to Aunt May that he knew he had "always been a fast healer, but lately it seems even more so." Also during "Civil War", Spider-Man is heavily beaten and drugged, suffering multiple fractures and blood loss by the Jack O' Lantern but his injuries heal almost completely by the next issue. However, like many superhuman powers, the effectiveness of Spider-Man's abilities varies based on the author and the needs of the story.
His accelerated metabolism increases his tolerance to drugs, meaning a larger dose is needed to cause the usual effect, and he can recover from the effects rapidly. During an encounter with the bee-based villain Swarm, Spider-Man is incapacitated by thousands of bee stings, but fully recovers in less than 24 hours. His resistance to other toxins varies, but is typically significantly higher than normal. However, Spider-Man has normal human tolerance to the effects of alcoholic beverages and is rarely shown drinking, since it affects his balance, reflexes and coordination. In one battle with the Hobgoblin, he nearly loses his life after unknowingly consuming spiked punch at a party. Although he is still affected by disease and infection, his recovery time is typically shorter than that of an ordinary human. Spider-Man's unique physiology even allows him to recover from the effects of vampirism.
Spider-Man is still vulnerable to disease, and has fallen ill due to flu many times, which affects the reliability of his powers. He also has certain susceptibility towards ethyl chloride, which is a commonly used pesticide against insects and arachnids. This chemical is used frequently as a weapon in Spider-Slayer robots.
Possible mystical connection
Ezekiel, who shares similar spider abilities (gained through an arcane ritual), makes Peter question the source of his powers, implying a mystical reason the spider chose to bite him, suggesting that the spider would have given him powers even without being exposed to radiation (Although Peter has noted that the radiation did slightly change the mutative effects that the spider had on his system). Though this was never proven, Spider-Man has been tied to mystical forces before such as when he was mentioned in an ancient prophecy in connection to the sorcerer Dr. Strange and when the cosmic beings Lord Order and Master Chaos claimed credit for Peter Parker being the one bitten by the spider. Magical forces could also explain how Spider-Man is able to psychically detect threats such as whether or not a person has a gun or if he is being followed. However, after Ezekiel's death, Peter has chosen not to pursue this line of thought any further, noting that science and magic can be essentially two sides of the same coin, and reasoning that his scientific background has helped him for so long that there is no reason for him to shift focus.
Spider-Man is capable of crawling on walls and ceilings. He has conscious control over this ability, and it is simple and instinctive for him to use—he first uses it in Amazing Fantasy #15 before realizing he has the ability. Originally, Spider-Man is able to stick to surfaces using only his hands and feet, but later he is shown to be able to cling with his back. The strength of attraction between himself and the surface he is clinging to is considerable, with an upper limit of several tons per finger. If Spider-Man does not willingly detach, but is pulled off by force, the surface usually breaks still attached to his body. However, it has been shown that a significant shock can cause him to lose control of his power and fall off a surface. If a surface is too slippery, he has problems sticking to it; if it is too fragile or crumbling, it is unable to support his weight. He can also use his clinging ability to lift or hold objects; for instance, he can catch a thrown ball simply by touching it with one fingertip. Spider-Man is also able to jump and sprint against a wall which helps him climb surfaces a lot faster.
The ability works through thin layers of cloth, such as the fabric of his costume, but not through materials such as the soles of shoes. When Peter Parker needs to crawl without changing into the costume, he removes his shoes first.
Spider-Man's wall-crawling ability has increased with time, most notably a backup in Amazing Spider-Man #365 by Tom DeFalco. There DeFalco had Peter explain his abilities to Mary Jane and Peter revealed that every part of his body has gained or increased in attraction to other surfaces, and he can stick people or objects on his back. Over time he realized he could keep his mask firmly fixed to his face (previously used to prevent undesirable mask removal), protecting his secret identity.
Kaine, the villainous clone of Spider-Man, has shown the ability to use his wall-crawling abilities in a more offensive manner, burning distinctive scars, known as the Mark of Kaine in the face of his victims. Later Spider-Man himself uses a variation of the same ability to escape from The Green Goblin by making his fingertips cling to his face and tearing them away, digging five deep wounds in Norman's face. Despite the obvious offensive potential of such an ability, Peter claims that it is unlikely he will use it again, as it was a move born out of anger and desperation. In later events during the Grim Hunt arc, due to Peter's rage at Sasha Kravinoff over everything she put him and his 'spider family' through, he uses his version of the Mark of Kaine on her, ripping the skin off her face in the shape of a hand print, proclaiming "This is from my brother."
Spider-Man's wall crawling abilities have been explained in several ways. Some notable explanations include:
- A panel of biologists and physicists on the History Channel’s Spider-Man Tech suggested the barbed-hair on his fingertips (from the movie) could have the same effect as the miniature scopulae hairs on the ends of a spider’s feet. Spiders are able to climb up seemingly impossible surfaces like glass because the scopulae interact with the glass’s atoms causing a form of atomic static cling via the Van der Waals force.
- The Spider-Man entry in the Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe states that Spider-Man is able to enhance the flux of inter-atomic attractive forces on surfaces he touches, increasing the coefficient of friction between that surface and himself.
- Bio-electricity. Spider-Girl's similar power is referred to by Reed Richards as "bio-magnetism," but her ability is somewhat different.
Enemies able to cancel wall-crawling ability
- Electro had a revelation during a battle about Spider-Man's clinging ability and can disrupt this power somehow, claiming that it was based on some sort of electromagnetic bonding. It is ineffective after the events of "The Other".
- Many enemies, such as Stilt-Man and Paste Pot Pete have used lubricants to prevent Spider-Man from sticking.
- Some enemies with sufficient strength have ripped Spider-Man from a surface but usually after the wall breaks from the strain, not from his powers failing, and pieces of the wall can still be seen clinging to his hands and feet.
Enhanced strength and durability
Early in his career, Spider-Man was frequently said to have the proportional strength of a spider, but he can lift much more due to his human size and physical build, up to 15 tons. Since the events of "The Other" and "The Queen" story arcs, his strength has been increased to twice his original limits, now able to press up to 25 tons. During the Secret Invasion, Spider-Man was shown to be able to knock a Tyranosaurus Rex unconscious in one punch. He has been shown to lift and throw objects such as a semi-truck and to bend the steel of a screwdriver with one finger with ease. When in combat, Spider-Man must pull his punches unless fighting someone of similar or greater durability and power. Otherwise, his blows would kill a normal person.
Spider-Man's bodily tissue is a great deal more durable and resistant to some types of injury than a normal human (for example a regular human punched Spider-Man and he broke his wrist). However, Spider-Man is far from invulnerable. While his body is tougher than an ordinary human, as seen several times in Spider-Man 2 (via falling from average web slinging height without sustaining significant injury), he can still be injured in ways comparable to an ordinary human. For example, Spider-Man can be injured by bullets or knives composed of conventional material and from impacts of sufficient force. However, if injured, his accelerated metabolism is capable of repairing itself many times faster than an ordinary human. A doctor has told Spider-Man that it would be impossible for a normal man to survive the punishment that he has endured.
Spider-Man can leap several stories vertically or the width of a city street. While his running speed has never been definitely established, he can run at superhuman speed for short sprints and has been shown to be easily capable of overtaking fast-moving cars, but nearly always prefers using his weblines to travel.
Superhuman reflexes and agility
Spider-Man's agility and reflexes are far superior to those of an ordinary human, even those that represent the peak of human conditioning such as Captain America. The speed of his reflexes combined with his spider-sense allows him to dodge almost any attack, even gunfire at point blank. Due to the events of "The Other," his reflexes are increased further, responding directly to his spider-sense and instinct that can result in him lashing out at negligible threats. During the "Grim Hunt" storyline, he was able to dodge a bullet fired from a hunting rifle at point blank range, and the story implies that Spider-Man's exceptional speed in that situation was a result of the intense grief and rage he was feeling at the time.
Spider-Man has the ability to maintain his equilibrium on any surface that he can stick to. For example, he can balance on one finger on a high wire, or stand upright on a wall, his body parallel to the ground. Additionally, he is able to flex his body like a contortionist, assuming postures that would be impossible or harmful for most normal humans. His tendons and connective tissues are at least twice as elastic as the average human being's. This ability is often demonstrated by the unusual poses Spider-Man would assume while webslinging or dodging enemy attacks. Also, as an outcome of his spider-reflexes, Peter has developed his own fighting style.
Spider-Man's five primary senses are above average perception, though not superhuman, as a result of his spider powers. Before gaining his abilities Peter Parker required corrective lenses to see properly.
Spider-Man's "spider-sense" manifests in a tingling feeling at the base of his skull, alerting him to personal danger in proportion to the severity of that danger. For instance, a little tingling such as a happenstance passing by of an enemy would prompt Peter to be alert, while a strong tingling, sometimes to the point of being painful, is interpreted as a need to take immediate evasive action on a deadly threat. It appears to be a simultaneous, seemingly clairvoyant response to a wide variety of phenomena. Though the exact mechanism of this ability is unknown, (though in The Amazing Spider-Man #1, he refers to it as an instinctive ability) his original spider-sense clearly has at least two aspects in addition to sensing potential or immediate danger:
- A psychological awareness of his surroundings, similar to the radar-sense of Daredevil. When he is temporarily blinded, Spider-Man learns to emulate this ability and navigate without his eyesight. Even under normal conditions, his spider-sense helps him navigate darkened rooms, instinctively avoiding obstacles or hazards, or potentially noisy or unstable floorboards, walls or ceilings that may betray his presence. In one comic, he is shown sensing how many fingers Mary Jane is holding up.
- An ability to detect certain radio frequencies. Spider-Man's technical skill is such that he has designed spider-tracers that broadcast a signal detectable by his spider-sense.
Using his spider-sense to time his enhanced reflexes, Spider-Man can casually dodge attacks up to and including automatic-weapons fire. Even point blank, his spider-sense has already warned him in enough time to get away like a precognitive sense, before he can even consciously think about his actions. However, he can ignore this instinct. His spider-sense is sufficiently well-linked to his reflexes, even before "The Other" storyline, that a threat can trigger them even when Spider-Man is asleep or stunned, as in The Amazing Spider-Man #141, where a narcotic gas released by foe Mysterio caused him to lose his balance and fall from a building. Though barely conscious, a combination of spider-sense and reflex caused his arm to seize a fire-escape ladder, saving his life.
When Spider-Man swings across a city on his weblines, his spider-sense guides his aim, allowing him to travel at high speeds hundreds of feet above street level with minimal concentration, confident his weblines will find secure anchor points.
Spider-Man's spider-sense is directional and can guide him to or away from hidden weapons and disguised enemies. Sudden and extreme threats (such as the Beyonder observing Earth before the first Secret Wars, Thanos using the Infinity Gauntlet to destroy half of the sapient population of the universe, the Ultimate version of Venom, or the predatory Morlun) can cause his spider-sense to react with painful intensity.
Spider-Man can also sense and dodge attacks directed randomly or by a computer. His spider-sense has helped him preserve his secret identity since it alerts him to observers or cameras when changing into or out of his costume. The spider-sense does not react to those whom Peter does not consider a threat, such as Aunt May. Contrary to this, his spider-sense has warned him of people close to him when he does not wish to be seen, such as when he's partly in costume.
Spider-Man can choose to ignore his spider-sense, and distraction or fatigue can force unawareness.
Spider-Man has used his spider-sense to battle even the most skilled fighters in the Marvel Universe. While not being as trained as them in conventional fighting styles his spider-sense and reflexes (provided with split second quickness and agility) allow him to dodge and counter, often with ease.
After the "Disassembled" and "The Other" storylines, Spider-Man gains the ability to feel vibrations and currents in the air or in his web lines, much like a real spider. He also develops a psychic connection to insects, spiders, and other arthropods, though this aspect of his powers may no longer be present (see below). The spider-sense also allows Spider-man to determine the source of the incoming attack, which gives him an advantage against enemies who are all over the place like Spot.
As a result of the storyline "Revenge of the Spider-Slayer", Spider-Man loses his spider-sense when he sets off a device that disabled Spencer Smythe's latest creations' ability to coordinate their attacks via a similar principle. As such, he starts taking kung-fu lessons from Shang-Chi, on Madame Web's advice. When his full powers are restored in the "Spider-Island" storyline, his battle-honed body granted him a new, refined form of Spider-Sense that allows him to draw upon Shang-Chi's training instead of automatically reacting to threats.
Enemies/people immune to the spider-sense
When deprived of his spider-sense, Spider-Man becomes vulnerable to surveillance and attack and traveling by web-line requires most of his concentration.
- The Green Goblin developed a gas that temporarily deadened all of Spider-Man's powers, especially his spider-sense. This same gas was later enhanced and used by Roderick Kingsley, in his guise as the villain Hobgoblin.
- Venom is undetectable to Spider-Man's spider-sense, due to the symbiote having been mentally linked to him, and for the most part, contains his DNA. This works against Spider-Man in the sense that Venom attacking Spider-Man is essentially Spider-Man attacking himself. His descendant symbiotes, including Carnage and Toxin, have inherited this trait to a lesser extent.
In Secret Wars issue #8, Spider-Man first comes in contact with the symbiote. His spider-sense goes off but is quickly dampened as the symbiote flowed over Spider-Man's body and established the mental link that allowed it to generate webbing and respond to Spider-Man's thoughts. However, a clone of Spider-Man, Ben Reilly was able to use his spider-sense to anticipate the attacks of Venom. This may be related to the fact that the clone was created prior to Peter's bond with the symbiote. This suggests that it is Peter's spider-sense that no longer responds to the symbiote due to acclimatization, rather than the symbiote having developed the ability to hide itself. This explanation would be the official reason Spider-Man could not sense Venom in The Spectacular Spider-Man animated series.
- Mysterio developed a radar-like device that can neutralize the sense.[volume & issue needed]
- The clones Kaine, Ben Reilly, and Spidercide were also undetectable, and he is undetectable to their spider-senses as well. As they share the same DNA, their spider-senses recognize the others as "self." However, Spider-Man was later able to use his Spider-Sense (albeit it was previously tampered, stripped from him and later restored, all while receiving specific training to hone his battle effectiveness) against a further mutated Kaine, possibly because Kaine's DNA had been altered to a point where it was no longer identical to his own  Once Kaine is restored to normal, he is again able to sneak up on Peter Parker in his civilian guise (though it's worth noting that he was acting peacefully at the time).
- Kraven the Hunter once used a jungle scent that dulled Spider-Man's spider-sense.[volume & issue needed]
- The Jackal once succeeded in attacking Spider-Man from behind, without triggering his spider-sense. The Jackal explained it to be due to him always being Peter Parker's (Spider-Man's alter ego) friend, meaning that the spider-sense would not regard him as a threat/enemy. The Jackal then revealed himself to be Dr. Miles Warren, one of Peter Parker's teachers.[volume & issue needed]
- During the 2006-2007 miniseries Civil War, Iron Man creates a device that can send false spider-sense signals. He has also incorporated the device into his armor to grant him his own version of the spider-sense. However, this mechanism is apparently imperfect, since Iron Man was unable to detect the presence of Vision.
- Certain Skrull agents are immune to the sense. Spider-Man was unable to sense anything unusual about the agent posing as Elektra. This agent was also able to avoid detection by Wolverine's heightened sense of smell or Doctor Strange's mystical abilities.
- The Spot can attack Spider-Man with his attacks coming out of "spots", since Spider-Man's spider-sense could not detect a threat coming from an alternate dimension.[volume & issue needed]
- Ezekiel Sims was immune to Peter's spider-sense because the two shared similar powers, but this also made Spider-Man immune to Ezekiel's.[volume & issue needed]
- When Spider-Man is surrounded by Fogg of the criminal duo Knight and Fogg, who can turn himself into fog, his spider-sense seems more diffuse.[volume & issue needed]
- In one issue, Spider-Man's aunt, May Parker is able to hit Spider-Man from behind without triggering his spider-sense. The reasoning behind this is that Peter did not consider Aunt May to be a threat so his spider-sense did not warn him.[volume & issue needed]
In the Spider-Man films, the spider-sense is explained as reflexes "so fast it borders on precognition", often signified with a special sound (like a bell ringing once very slowly) and bullet time photography. In the first Spider-Man film, the first time his spider-sense triggers, he seems to become aware of every potential danger in his surroundings, even those that pose minimal threats, such flies and paper spitballs. In the Spider-Man 2 novelization (ISBN 2-265-07939-1), the spider-sense is described as a general slowing-down of his perception of time (e.g. one second would feel like a minute). In Spider-Man 3, the spider-sense is never shown going off in Spider-Man's head with its special sound as in the previous two movies. Peter is shown using the spider-sense only once in the film, to dodge a pumpkin bomb thrown at him by Harry. Also, Eddie Brock as Venom (who is immune to the spider-sense) manages to attack Spider-Man by surprise, mocking Peter's inability to sense him with "Ooh, my spider-sense is tingling, if you know what I'm talking about."
Spider-Man has developed a unique fighting style that is nearly impossible for most other heroes to emulate or for most villains to defeat. Spider-Man uses all of his powers simultaneously to overpower and overwhelm his foes. He also makes excellent use of his surroundings during battles. For example, he uses a webbed-up fire extinguisher as a projectile in order to get distance between himself and Doctor Octopus' crushing arms. He is also never without a witty response or wise-crack to throw at an enemy in order to distract, anger, or simply insult a foe. Spider-Man's fighting style can best be described as an improvisational freestyle that functionally encompasses the usage of his strength, speed, flexibility, wits, intelligence, and his "spider-sense", with a combination of his acrobatic abilities, the use of his webbing, and his surroundings in order to work his strengths against his opponents' weaknesses. Spider-Man is a cunning fighter, so much so that he manages to defeat enemies much more powerful than himself. A major example of this is his defeat of Titania during the Secret Wars, outpacing her superior strength by focusing on hit-and-run attacks to catch her off-guard. Another is his victory over Galactus' cosmic-powered herald, Firelord, striking Firelord before retreating to a safer distance and luring him into dangerous situations, such as an exploding gas station. Yet another good example is how he once fought the combined efforts of DC's supervillain Mantis and the Marvel villain Juggernaut (both of whom are significantly more powerful than he is). This stems from the vast experience that he has accrued since his teen-aged crime-fighting years. During the events of "The Other," Peter is shown as receiving martial arts training from Captain America. As per Madame Web's instructions, Shang-Chi taught Kung-Fu to Spider-Man in order to compensate for the loss of his Spider-Sense. Together with Shang-Chi he devised a unique variant of Kung Fu, "The Way of The Spider", which has significantly improved after his spider-sense was reactivated, allowing him to react to his enemies with training and knowledge rather than random attacks, to the point that he was able to defeat Spider-Woman despite her own training from HYDRA and SHIELD (Albeit while she was under the 'remote control' of Doctor Octopus).
Before the radioactive spider bite, Peter Parker was already a gifted academic student with considerable expertise in many fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and advanced technology. Through these skills he was able to create his artificial web fluid, his web-shooters and other Spider-man equipment. His scientific knowledge has often been used to defeat his adversaries when his powers are not sufficient enough, such as devising an antidote to the formula that originally turned Doctor Connors into the Lizard, creating various mixtures to dissolve the costumes of foes such as the Rhino and El Dorado. Academically gifted, with a recorded IQ of 250, Peter displays an uncanny affinity for science, mathematics, mechanics, biology and physics. He is a brilliant individual, with exceptional skill in practically every field of science, and is an excellent inventor. He is an accomplished chemist and physicist. His intellect has impressed and gained the respect of individuals such as Iron Man, Ant Man and Mr. Fantastic. During a confrontation with Doctor Octopus, who had used various cybernetic enhancements to enable his mind to take virtually complete control of New York, Spider-Man's mind proved powerful enough to take control away from his enemy despite Doctor Octopus's skepticism that his mind could be strong enough to accomplish such a feat.
On several occasions, Spider-Man takes on more spider-like forms—at the extreme even transforming into a gigantic spider.
When Peter tried to rid himself of his spider powers by using a formula, it backfires, growing him four extra arms from his sides. With help from Dr. Curt Connors, and a blood sample from Morbius, he is able to return to normal.
In Marvel Fanfare vol. 1 #1-2, he is transformed by the Savage Land Mutates into a monstrous, predatory form that comes to be called "Man-Spider". In this form, his normal human consciousness is submerged, and he attacks like an animal. However, his conscience is able, barely, to stop him from killing. He is transformed into Man-Spider several other times.[volume & issue needed]
In Spider-Man: The Animated Series, the "Six Arms Saga" was reinvented as the "Neogenic Nightmare", where the transformation was not caused by Peter's attempts to remove his powers, but as a result of his body mutating further from the original spider-bite. After his attempts to ask Professor X and the X-Men for help developing a cure meet with failure- although he was able to assist them in thwarting a monster created when an anti-mutant scientist was exposed to a serum he'd developed to remove mutant abilities-, Spider-Man turned to Doctor Crawford for aid. Unfortunately, his initial attempt at a cure resulted in him growing the four new arms, the accelerated mutation subsequently causing him to mutate into the Man-Spider after fighting Punisher, a recently mutated Michael Morbius, and the NYPD. Thanks to the collaboration of Kraven the Hunter and the Punisher, Spider-Man was cured of the mutation and returned to normal. When the Vulture attempted to drain Spider-Man's youth and power in a later encounter, Doctor Connors reprogrammed the device that the Vulture was using to absorb the defective genome that had caused the mutation originally, resulting in the Vulture mutating into a Man-Spider (though Vulture managed to get rid of the mutation somehow) and forever curing Spider-Man of the defective genome. During the concluding "Spider Wars" storyline of the series- where Spider-Man teamed up with multiple alternate versions of himself to save reality-, one of his other selves was still dealing with the mutation crisis, completely transforming into the Man-Spider during the mission before the Beyonder was able to use the last of his power to teleport Man-Spider back to his home dimension.
In the "Avengers Disassembled" crossover event, Spider-Man encounters an enemy called the Queen, a woman capable of controlling insects. She triggers another transformation in him: first, he grows extra eyes and hair covering his body; second, he changes into a Man-Spider-like form (however, with his human mind still intact); and finally he transforms into a giant spider. In that form, he seems to die, but instead emerges in human form, but with enhanced powers.[volume & issue needed] (See below.)
Other transformations included the vicious Spider-Lizard which occurred when Spider-Man tried to cure Dr. Connors from the Lizard persona by using a portable Enervator. The machine made Peter absorb radioactive feedback and transferred the reptilian metamorphosis to him and granting him bulletproof skin, a powerful tail and reptilian fangs and claws. There was also the Spider-Hulk mutation which granted the Spider-Man the powers and the easy temper of the green goliath by transferring energy from the Hulk (which was kept in a Bio-Kinetic Energy Absorber made from a scientist trying to steal the Hulk's powers) to the web-slinger, when the latter accidentally touched the device.[volume & issue needed]
In the What If: The Other, an alternate variation of the The Other storyline, Peter rejects the Spider and kills it, leaving him in a comatose state. The Venom symbiote abandons its current host, Mac Gargan, and bonds with Peter to become Poison, who combines the powers of Venom and Spider-Man's enhanced powers.
Peter was not the only one who suffered transferred mutations while wearing the Spider-Man costume. Ben Reilly was transformed into Spider-Carnage when he was up against the powerful entity, because he had to bind with the alien in order to prevent its rampage.[volume & issue needed]
Powers after "Disassembled" and "The Other"
In addition to his original powers, Spider-Man gains the following abilities after he fights the Queen in "Disassembled", and also after apparently dying at the hands of Morlun and being reborn ("Spider-Man: The Other," 2005). It is apparent that his powers gained from "The Other" are only available because a voice inside him says that he is "embracing the Other". While he still has most of these extra powers, a few of them (most notably the ability to produce organic webbing) no longer seem to be present, for reasons that have yet to be revealed.
Joe Queseda implied that the loss of these extra powers may be related to the "One More Day" storyline. In an interview, he stated that "While we won't be making any direct references to "The Other," it's still a part of Spidey history, and it remains to be seen how Pete lost those powers." However, in the letters page of The Amazing Spider-Man #640, the editors stated that the powers were always temporary by nature: "Those Other powers really only exhibited themselves under certain circumstances. They weren't extra powers Peter could call up whenever he wanted, so whether or not they've disappeared for good is a story waiting to be told. That said, though, Peter still does remember the adventure where he got them. He hasn't forgotten."
After Disassembled, Spider-Man can mentally communicate with arthropods (at least insects and spiders), though he does not seem to be capable of controlling them like Ant-Man. He can sense their presence, or glance at any spider and instantly know what kind it is. It is possible that this is an extension of his spider-sense. Spider-Man used this mental capacity to communicate with all of the Queen's followers, humans with an "insect gene," and learned how to deactivate a bomb. This power was rarely, if ever, used or referenced after Disassembled.
In "Disassembled", Spider-Man develops the ability to shoot organic webbing from his wrists (after he recovered from being changed into a spider), and he stopped using his Web-shooters which was a great advantage for him because it allowed him to stop being dependent on web cartridges which allowed him limited shots. Once, while fighting Iron Man, Spider-Man supposedly "let loose", allowing his webbing to shoot out unrestrained. After he had stopped, he had generated enough webbing to completely encase Iron Man, and nearly fill the alley in which they were fighting with webbing. Since the beginning of the 2008 "Brand New Day" storyline, this power seems to have gone away, for reasons that are currently unknown.[volume & issue needed]
Spider-Man's clone Kaine developed the ability to shoot organic webbing following his death and resurrection in Grim Hunt. This ability remained present even after the other mutations caused by his resurrection were reversed.
After "The Other," Spider-Man develops night vision, allowing him to see in the dark to a limited degree.
Eyes, teeth, and stingers
Overcome by rage in "The Other", Spider-Man's spider side overrules his human qualities. His eyes turn glowing red, and he develops fanged teeth, night vision, and sharp stingers. The stingers were within his arms, protruding from his wrists. They are coated in a venom that inflicts temporary paralysis, though the impalement itself can prove fatal. Spider-Man could not consciously control these stingers yet, so they are only triggered in overwhelming situations. Arrow claimed that the stingers will only come out when he is confronting or confronted by creatures who are associated with his mystical powers like Morlun or Ezekiel, which could explain why they were seen so rarely.
Spider-Man's clone Kaine appears to have undergone a similar transformation following his death and resurrection in Grim Hunt, as he has fangs, mandibles, and eight glowing red eyes. He was later restored to normal, though at the conclusion of "Spider-Island" he grew a pair of stingers from his wrists identical to the ones Spider-Man had during "The Other".
Spider-mutation and cocoon
During the "Disassembled" storyline, Spider-Man mutates into a giant spider, and then emerges from the spider's body with a new ability to communicate with arthropods and organic webbing.[volume & issue needed]
In "The Other", Spider-Man seemingly dies and molts his damaged skin. He creates a cocoon, and emerges with all his bodily damage healed: lost teeth, broken bones, his lost eye (which Morlun had torn out and eaten), scars, and even lost tonsils. In the words of Tony Stark, Peter's "odometer's been reset". Since it was claimed in related issues that some species of spiders shed their skin once in a lifetime, this may be a one-time occurrence.
In "Grim Hunt," Spider-Man's clone Kaine dies, only to return later under similar circumstances.
Powers after "Brand New Day"
Although not technically Spider-Man's power, the worldwide mindwipe of Spider-Man's identity as Peter Parker occurred sometime prior to the events of the "Brand New Day" storyline. Spider-Man is aware that the whole world has forgotten his secret identity. and that he played a role in making it happen.
When Norman Osborn confronts Peter in his apartment, as part of the "New Ways To Die" storyline, Peter thinks to himself, "Ah, right. He doesn't remember anymore. He has no idea I'm Spidey. Nobody does. Everything we did is still up and running. I'm safe." Peter later describes it to Mister Fantastic as a "psychic blindspot." When confronted with any evidence which could lead to the realization that Spider-Man is Peter Parker, those affected will be unable to 'connect the dots,' or they will come to the wrong conclusion, but will accept it as the right one. An example of this is shown in the comics when Norman Osborn discovers a camera at a fight scene that is taking pictures of Spider-Man based on a tracking device in his suit; rather than assuming that Peter Parker is Spider-Man taking pictures of himself, he assumes that Spider-Man takes the pictures and uses Peter as his 'agent' to collect the money for him. Another example is when Horizon Labs' Max Modell confronts Peter about his connection to Spider-Man, and comes to the conclusion that Peter had created all of Spider-Man's equipment, as he stated that having both the scientific knowledge and super-powers in the same person pushes the limits of believability.
If Spider-Man were to be unmasked - or were to unmask himself - then the memories of affected people witnessing the incident would be restored. Mister Fantastic claims he can duplicate the "firewalls" for himself and the Fantastic Four, allowing Spider-Man to tell them his identity, without fear of further compromising his secret. The psychic blindspot power's magnitude is high enough to fool even Daredevil's senses, who can normally identify people with the sound of their individual heartbeat rhythm or the scent of body odors. In The Amazing Spider-Man #600, Daredevil refused to know again Spider-Man's identity, as the psychic blindspot power was enough to even fool his heightened senses, and thus he did not want to compromise that protection. The Black Cat, having learnt Mary Jane's ex-boyfriend was Spider-Man, was able to recall back when she was dating Flash Thompson that Mary Jane had a boyfriend at the time, but when prompted with the name "Peter?", she dismissed it immediately due to the mechanics of the blindspot.
It was hinted in The Amazing Spider-Man #561 and The Amazing Spider-Man #601 that Mary Jane is aware of Peter's dual identity, which is finally confirmed in #605. It was also shown that Kaine is immune to the psychic blindspot, as Kaine is in fact a clone of Spider-Man. It was revealed in "Spider-Island" that the Jackal also retains memory of Spider-Man's secret identity, most like due to all the DNA samples he has collected from Spider-Man and the clones he has created from them over the years. Given that Morlun and Steve Rogers were deceased during "One More Day", it is unknown if they remember Spider-Man's identity.
It was revealed in The Amazing Spider-Man #640 and #641 that Peter went to Doctor Strange and begged him to make the world forget he was Spider-Man. Doctor Strange in turn visited Tony Stark and Reed Richards via astral projection and convinced them to help him do so via a mix of magic and science in a similar fashion to how the world forgot who the Sentry was. The three decided that the sole person with the knowledge of Spider-Man being Peter Parker would be Peter himself, and in Reed's words, have Tony infect the world with the mind-purging virus storm via his Extremis system as the carrier. With a magic barrier in the shape of a sphere, Peter was to go in it, where he would be immune from the mind purge, but Peter decided at the last second to take Mary Jane inside as well. Due to the events of the "Spider-Island" storyline, in which Peter publicly used his powers unmasked-albeit while claiming that he was one of the people infected by the "virus" that gave most of New York his abilities- he had unknowingly invalidated the spell that Dr. Strange had cast, thereby making it possible for others to deduce his secret identity again, although his past unmasking has still been erased from the world's memory. This is confirmed when Carlie Cooper breaks off her relationship with him after deducing his true connection to Spider-Man due to her frustration at his lies.
Although he is usually of limited financial means, Spider-Man develops personal equipment that plays an important role in his superhero career.
Spider-Man's web-shooters were perhaps his most distinguishing trait, after his costume. Peter had reasoned that a spider (even a human one) needed a web. Since the radioactive spider-bite did not initially grant him the power to spin webs, he had instead found a way to produce them artificially. The wrist-mounted devices fire an adhesive "webbing" (see below) through a threaded adjustable nozzle. The trigger rests high in the palm and requires a double tap from the middle two fingers to activate, eliminating the chance of accidental discharge when forming a fist. In order to fire the webbing, Spider-Man's fingers must hit the sensor precisely.[volume & issue needed]
Spider-Man must steadily replenish his webbing supply, reloading his web-shooters with small cartridges of web fluid, which is stored under high pressure. In early stories, he carries his extra supplies in a utility belt worn under his costume. Later on, he equips the web-shooters with a bracelet-like carousel that automatically rotates a new cartridge into position as he empties them. When in use, a steel nipple in the carousel pierces the seal of the cartridge, and allows the fluid to travel through an air-tight channel toward the nozzle. Pressing down on the palm-trigger of the web-shooter causes the valve in the nozzle to open wider, expelling the fluid. Releasing the trigger causes the valves to close, cutting off the web-line or fluid. If Spider-Man creates any variation to his normal web formula that is too strong for the pinch valves to sever, he might end up being tangled up or tied to the object he attached his web to, which has happened on more than one occasion. His web-shooters require constant maintenance and on more than one occasion suffer jams or malfunctions.[volume & issue needed]
In some issues, the web-shooters have required tremendous pressure to fire them, requiring ordinary humans to use hammers or similar objects to trigger them, while in other stories, normal human strength is sufficient enough to activate them.
Occasionally, the web-shooters are modified to expel other liquids.[volume & issue needed]
After he develops organic webbing, Spider-Man gives the web-shooters to his wife Mary Jane as a Valentine's Day present, after having them changed into bracelets, and weakening the pressure required, so that she can use the bracelets for self-defense. This appears to have reversed at some point, as Spider-Man is once again dependent on his web-shooters since the start of the "Brand New Day" storyline, for unknown reasons.[volume & issue needed]
Ben Reilly, as the Scarlet Spider and later as Spider-Man, uses modified web-shooters that can fire fast-acting sedative "stinger" darts, and "impact webbing," balls of webbing that explode on impact and envelop the target. The impact webbing and stingers are activated by certain wrist movements, rather than using a double-tap on a palm trigger. They use larger web cartridges than Peter's web-shooters and worn on the outside of his costume. Spider-Girl, Peter's alternate future daughter, uses modified versions of Ben's web-shooters.[volume & issue needed]
In the 2012 film The Amazing Spider-Man, Parker uses artificial web-shooters, which are mounted on the exterior of Spider-Man's gloves, and use artificially synthesized webs made from spiders genetically altered by Oscorp. Peter gets these and incorporates these into old wrist watches whilst adding the trigger.
Shortly after getting his powers, Peter Parker (established early on as being extremely intelligent and creative) develops a special synthetic polymer adhesive that has spider web-like properties, as well as wrist-worn launching devices (see Web-Shooters). Upon release, the webbing dries into an extremely tough, flexible, adhesive fiber. One account described a single strand as stronger than piano wire and it is perhaps as strong as real spider silk or Kevlar (Spider-Man has used web-shields on several occasions to protect himself from small-caliber bullets). In Spider-Man: The Ultimate Guide, one strand of webbing is described to be strong enough to bind the Hulk and hold him prisoner, but only if the Hulk were to hold still and let the webbing sufficiently dry. Also, according to recent volumes of The Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe, the tensile strength of the webbing is equivalent to 120 lb (54 kg) per square millimeter in cross-section and is comparable to nylon with extraordinary adhesive properties.[volume & issue needed] Its exact composition is unknown, but after about an hour, the webbing breaks down, loses strength and eventually evaporates.
Spider-Man can do many things with his webs:
- Firing a thin strand to a great height at a nearby tall building, then brachiating on this "webline". Doing this in rapid series allows Spider-Man to quickly travel through well-developed urban areas. His travel speed has not been officially stated, though the Sins Past storyline depicts his crossing the borough of Manhattan in under 11 minutes (because he has been able to travel by web since the age of fifteen, Peter Parker does not have a driver's license). During his web swinging travelling, Spider-Man can reach 120 mph (190 km/h).
- Firing a thicker "rope" of webbing, Spider-Man can bind captured criminals (even those with superhuman strength) to be later picked up by police officers.
- Covering a small area with an extremely sticky blob. Spider-Man can cover an opponent's eyes, blindfolding them, or smother a handgun or a small bomb. On one occasion, he told a criminal whose weapon and hand had been so covered: "I should warn you about the tensile strength of my webbing, but considering your likely IQ, let's just say that if you pull that trigger again, the backfire will probably take your hand off! Kapeesh?"
- Casting a large web across a street or alley to snare rapidly moving persons or vehicles. The longer Spider-Man presses his two middle fingers in his palm to throw web, the thicker the web becomes as layers are being added on and on.
- Improvising small structures, such as parachutes, statues or dummies, baseball bats, full-size operational gliders, trampolines, gloves (for fighting the likes of Electro), nets, water-tight domes (for underwater breathing), bandages, slings, bulletproof shields, plugs, patches, and even hammocks.
- In his early adventures, Spider-Man sometimes fired the fluid as a straight liquid to use its maximum adhesive strength.
- To defeat the Blob, he once intentionally broke a web cartridge, exposing the fluid to air, rather than channeling it through his webshooter. By exposing it to air, the web fluid immediately expanded, covering the Blob in a large mass of webbing. Though expanded, it did not appear to lose any of its strength, as it was able to contain the Blob until the police arrested him.
- Peter has also been seen using the impact webbing. Originally crafted from Ben Reilly, the impact webbing is a large ball of webbing that explodes on contact and covers the opponent in webbing from top to bottom.
- In some cases, like in Spider-Man 2 and Spider-Man 3 and some comics, Peter is able to let out a thick piece of web called for a short time, creating a small projectile weapon called "web balls".
Spider-Man can modify his webbing when anticipating combat with a specific threat. These modifications include non-conductive webbing (typically for battling Electro), flame-retardant webbing (against the Human Torch or out-of-control fires), stronger (yet less stable) webbing for dealing with Stegron's dinosaur army, and even acid webbing that can eat through the Rhino's tough hide. His latest variation is magnetic webbing, which is used to interfere or cancel out radio or remote-control frequencies.
In the "Disassembled" storyline, Parker undergoes a transformation that results in the ability to produce organic web fluid from his wrists, and is able to fire his webbing in much the same manner as his artificial web-shooters. According to the new 2007 Spider-Man handbook, Parker has grown spinnerets in his forearms that terminate in small pores at the junction of his wrists. By pressing down with his middle fingers to his palm, he causes the pores to open and the spinnerets to eject the organic fluid with a force equal to or greater than that of his web-shooters. The effectiveness and amount of the new webbing is dependent upon his health and nutrition. The specific properties of this new organic webbing are unknown, but it can be safely assumed to be comparable to his artificially created web mixture. In some cases, it has shown to be of greater tensile strength and elasticity. Furthermore, according to the new handbook, the organic webbing takes a week to dissolve. After gaining this ability, he begins using the bio-webbing instead of his traditional mechanical web-shooters. The upper limit as to how much webbing he could produce at any one time has not been specified, though during Part 1 of the "One More Day" storyline, Peter actually produced enough webbing to immobilize and smother Iron Man's armor. In the subsequent "Brand New Day" storyline, Peter is shown to have his traditional web-shooters and appears to have lost the ability to create organic webbing, for reasons that have yet to be revealed.
Instead of having mechanical webshooters in the 2002 live-action Spider-Man film, Spider-Man grows spinnerets in his forearms, along with his other powers, although the film's novelization states that Peter made bracelets similar to the comic web shooters to help him aim his shots. In the 2012 film reboot, The Amazing Spider-Man, Peter creates artificial webshooters, as in the comics.
One biologist on the History Channel’s Spider-Man Tech suggested that it would be more plausible for Spider-Man to shoot webbing from the Submandibular gland beneath the tongue instead of from his forearms.
In 1994's Spider-Man: The Animated Series, Parker explains that when he became Spider-Man, he also became subconsciously aware that a combination of certain enzymes would create a strong, sticky fluid reminiscent of a spider's webbing. He then built web-shooters as in the comics.
Spider-Man uses small electronic "spider-tracers" of his own design that allow him to track objects or individuals. Typically, Spider-Man plants one on a departing enemy, or throws one to adhere to an escaping enemy, and then follows the target to their hideout for later attack. Spider-Man sometimes also uses a launching device in his web-shooters for better range and accuracy.
A tracer's outer casing is shaped like a spider, with legs for aerodynamic flight. The tracers are small enough to remain unnoticed, in general, but sometimes a target finds a tracer and destroys it.
In early stories, Spider-Man uses a small electronic receiver to follow the signals of his tracers, but eventually he modifies the tracers to emit a signal he can follow with his spider-sense so that he will be able to know whether or not he is in the proximity of the tracer. According to what he once said to Hank Pym (who noted that Peter may actually be smarter than him if he was able to design this at fifteen when Pym spent years developing similar technology for his helmet), he is able to sense the tracer within a 100-yard radius. The receiver, however, offers better range. Spider-Man is unable to sense a tracer that had been taken out of Manhattan at one point. The receiver, however, allows him to follow it to the town of Scarsdale, New York, some 20 miles (32 km) away. It is not yet established if the changes to his spider-sense documented in "The Other" storyline have affected Spider-Man's ability to sense the tracers.
Besides Spider-Man, Daredevil can pick up the signal with his Radar Sense from the Spider-Tracers due to his heightened sense of hearing being able to hear the signal. Unlike Spider-Man, it is more difficult for Daredevil to follow the signal, as he must drown out all other sounds around him to maintain focus.
In several stories, enemies use the tracers to lure him into a trap. Enemies with sufficient technical knowledge can reprogram the tracers into overloading his spider-sense, making it hard for him to tell the difference between real danger and the tracer. Or they just attune it to his sixth sense and they can simply put to a target of their own, just like Tracer did in "The Other".
His clone, Ben Reilly, can also pick up the signal from Peter's tracers. Ben also developed a modified version of the original tracer into a simpler 'Micro-Dot' form. Like Peter's, these devices can be fired from Ben's web-shooters and can adhere to most surfaces. They fly like miniature Frisbees. May Parker's spider sense operates on a different frequency than her father's, requiring her to use the tracer device, as Peter's tracers do not trigger her spider sense.
Following her rescue from an obsessed kidnapper, Mary Jane Watson wears an amplified version of a spider-tracer in a necklace pendant. It carries a boosted signal so Spider-Man can follow it over a longer distance.
After the events of "Revenge Of The Spider-Slayer", the Spider-Tracers become useless since Spider-Man can no longer pick up their signal due to the loss of his Spider Sense. However, in the "Road to Spider-Island" storyline, from working with Horizon Labs, Spider-Man made new and improved spider-tracers with listening devices, GPS and camouflauge. Some further modifications include using them as weapons with one example of combating Hydro-Man by freezing him solid with a cryogenic Spider-Tracer. This particular advancement is then applied toward a medical transplant delivery system.[volume & issue needed]
Utility belt and spider-signal
Spider-Man keeps his regular field equipment in a utility belt that can carry extra web fluid cartridges, spider-tracers, and his camera. The belt can hold up to 30 cartridges, each one being pressured to 300 psi. The belt's buckle contains a small but powerful light, which is filtered through a lens decorated with a stylized likeness of Spider-Man's mask. This spider-signal is mostly limited to intimidating weak-nerved criminals and acting as a wide-beam flashlight. It is sometimes used to call for help, as well. The signal is later used in The Spectacular Spider-Man. At his job at Horizon Labs, Peter has upgraded his utility belt to hold cartridges of different types of webbing and his Spider-Signal has a UV light setting for forensic analysis.
Peter Parker gains employment as a freelance (and sometimes staff) photographer through most of his teen and young adult years. He sells pictures of himself in action as Spider-Man, takes any assignments offered, or, sometimes, uses his powers to help him photograph special events where normal press access is limited or denied, for the New York newspaper The Daily Bugle.
His first camera, originally his father's, has an extended rear metal plate that allows him to use his web to secure it to a wall or other fixed object without interfering with its functions. Typically, Spider-Man positions the camera before intervening in a crime or emergency. Spider-Man gradually improves on the camera's simple timer, including adding a motion sensor that triggered the camera whenever he, as Spider-Man, moved in front of it. He has updated and replaced the camera (they are occasionally destroyed during battles) as necessary over the years.
Partly due to the stinginess of Bugle editor/publisher J. Jonah Jameson, Parker never earns much money as a freelancer. The Bugle, legal owner of his submitted work, eventually publishes a book of his photographic images (Webs) which helps improve his finances. He wins a Pulitzer Prize for his picture of the Sentry, but the Sentry's earlier adventures and their consequences are later wiped from human memory, probably including this award. Parker does, however, win other photography awards over the years.
Peter Parker publicly reveals his secret identity during the Civil War crossover. The Bugle staff (particularly Jameson), are shocked to learn that Parker had been selling them photographs of himself for years and is taking legal action for the fraud, although due to the actions of the Scarlet Spiders, Peter Parker's identity as Spider-Man was heavily questioned. In addition, the events of One More Day has wiped the knowledge of anyone knowing Peter Parker's identity as Spider-Man, thus restoring the status quo of the early Spider-Man comics.
Peter Parker currently no longer uses his camera due to being discredited as a photographer during the events of "The Gauntlet" storyline.
Corona Motors approaches Spider-Man through the advertising agency Carter & Lombardo, offering him use of a new nonpolluting motor they had invented and wished to promote, to be installed in a "Spider-Mobile" of his design. Initially reluctant but tempted by the promised endorsement fees, Spider-Man enlists the aid of Johnny Storm, aka the Human Torch, in creating the vehicle; a heavily customized dune buggy with web-launchers and a spider-signal. It debuted in The Amazing Spider-Man #130. It proves useful for a time but is quickly wrecked (Spider-Man having not yet learned to drive). The Tinkerer (with support from the Kingpin), salvages and modifies it further to allow it to drive itself and drive up walls, and he uses it against Spider-Man, who barely manages to disable it. Spider-Man returns the heavily damaged vehicle to Carter & Lombardo, suspending it with webbing outside the window of their 14th-story offices. Spider-Man, who had never been enthused by the project, looks back on the entire affair with some regret, repeatedly calling the Spider-Mobile "hokey".
Most recently, the Spider-Mobile made a brief cameo appearance, and an appearance in the flashback series Spider-Man and Human Torch.
It is revealed that the Spider-Mobile had been donated to the Smithsonian Museum. However, it is also seen later in the 18th precinct's "superhuman evidence locker," which might suggest that the exhibit featuring the vehicle was discontinued.
According to the flash forward featured in the 'Old Man Logan' storyline starting in Wolverine #66, in a certain future a blind Hawkeye currently owns the Spider-Mobile and has customized it with the aid of one of his ex-wives. Hawkeye uses it to transport himself and Logan across the country to make a delivery.
Original red and blue costume
Although the details change somewhat over the years, Spider-Man's costume, with a few notable exceptions, remains fairly consistent. The standard is a form-fitting spandex bodysuit, which from the waist down is blue, except for mid-calf boots with a black web pattern on a red background. From the waist up, the fabric is a red-and-black web pattern, except for his back, sides, and insides of his upper arms, which are blue. There is a large red spider outline on his back, and a smaller black spider emblem on his chest. The back spider has changed over the years, featuring a spider with slightly smaller feet in the past. The mask has white one-way mirror type lenses rimmed with black (the white portions of the mask's eyes sometimes "squint" when Peter has his eyes partly shut. Whether this is his mask actually changing in response to his eyelids moving, or artistic license, is not clear). In addition to covering his entire head, thereby leaving no distinguishing features, the mask also muffles his voice, making it unrecognizable. The boots are composed of a thin material that allows Spider-Man's adhering ability to work through the soles of his feet. The boots, mask, and gloves can be folded up and stored inside a pocket while the remainder of his costume can be worn under his civilian clothes. Modernly, Spider-Man has taken to making and wearing a bulletproof version of this costume.
This standard costume varies in the details depending on the artist: he is sometimes depicted with "underarm webbing" connecting his arms to his torso; the eyes of his mask vary from barely larger than human eyes to extremely large; the blue portions of his costume vary from light blue to black (the usual standard is dark blue); and the density of the web design varies.
One of the most significant alterations to Spider-Man's costume takes place during the Secret Wars crossover event, in which Spider-Man begins to wear a black costume. After ruining his red and blue one in battle on Battleworld, the Hulk tells Spider-Man about a machine operated simply by thinking of what kind of suit, weapon or equipment someone needs. When Spider-Man thought of a new costume, the machine gave him a black sphere. When he touched it, Spider-Man found himself covered in a new black costume. Later on in Secret Wars #12, Spider-Man sees that other heroes are getting costumes from a different machine, not the one that he used. The costume first appears in The Amazing Spider-Man #252 and Marvel Team-up #141, released concurrently in May 1984, several months before its origin is revealed in Secret Wars #8. This costume has a large white spider emblem on the chest and back and white organic web-shooters on the backs of the hands. Unbeknownst to Spider-Man, the costume is actually an alien symbiote that was able to copy his abilities. The alien also learned the chemical composition of Spider-Man's webbing, the frequency at which his spider-sense operates (which allowed Venom to dampen Spider-Man's sixth sense), and could also copy his ability to stick to walls. Because of this, Venom's powers are similar to Spider-Man's. Also, having copied all of Spider-Man's movements, the alien started sneaking back on to Peter's body after Peter had removed it and fallen asleep. It would then carry the unconscious body of Spider-Man through a typical session of fighting street crime (albeit without speaking a word). Thus, for as long as he had the symbiote costume, Peter found himself inexplicably tired every morning, for though his mind slept, his body was getting no rest at night. Upon discovering the true nature of the costume, Peter rejects the creature by using high frequency sonics.
Peter then goes back to the traditional red and blue costume. His girlfriend at the time, Felicia Hardy adored the sleek black look and surprised him with a costume similar to the symbiote that she made for him. At first Peter is cautious of wearing it, but when he forgets to dry his red and blue one after washing he has no choice but to use it for crime fighting. Peter would then alternate costumes for a brief time, before choosing the black suit as his standard attire. When Mary Jane is viciously attacked by Venom (the union of the symbiote and Eddie Brock), and Peter is nearly killed by them, he retires the black look and tosses the suit into a fire. However, when forced to confront Morbius in the sewers, Peter has the costume remade for the benefit of stealth.
An interview released by Marvel editor-in-chief Joe Quesada (via newsarama) and Spider-Man editor Axel Alonso (CBR.com) stated that Spider-Man would be going back to his classic "Black" costume immediately after Civil War ends (Amazing Spider-Man #539 - February 2007). Marvel's February solicits confirm this, featuring Spider-Man returning to his black costume across all of his titles. In The Sensational Spider-Man vol. 2 #35, the Black Costume is first shown with underarm webbing like the original costume.
A variation on the black costume is featured in the film Spider-Man 3. It includes the webbing pattern from Spider-Man's red and blue costume with a black coloring and a slightly altered spider symbol, both on his chest and back. The same costume is also worn by Venom, with the added details of Venom's signature teeth, a more muscular appearance and a spider on his chest that closer resembles the comic book version's spider emblem.
In The Spectacular Spider-Man animated series, the black costume is initially identical to the red and blue webbed costume only entirely in black with silver webs, as in Spider-Man 3, but gradually grows to resemble the one featured in the comics over the course of several episodes as Peter becomes more affected by its influence. Here it creates its own webbing by use of its own semi-liquid composition, as well as being able to shrink to almost nothing due to said liquid properties.
The game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance features Spider-Man's black costume, or "Symbiote", as the second unlockable costume.
The black costume stemmed from an idea submitted by a then 22-year-old fan named Randy Schueller, after Marvel in 1982 had asked its readers for ideas for new Spider-Man stories. Schueller's idea was purchased by Jim Shooter for the sum of $220. Randy Schueller spelled out his involvement with the black costume and Marvel in an article at Comic Book Resources.
In the film and the video game, the wrestling costume is first worn by Peter Parker for the wrestling match against Bone Saw McGraw, rather than simply wearing a bag over his head, as in the comic book. Although in the first movie Peter is shown designing his standard costume in a notebook, the outfit he wears to the wrestling match is much cruder and apparently hastily assembled, consisting of simply a long-sleeved red t-shirt with a home-dyed spider and web design in black across the chest, red ski-mask, blue sweat-pants, and socks.
The wrestling costume can be seen worn by Peter in Spider-Man 3 in his flashbacks.
In Ultimate Spider-Man, Peter wears a similar suit consisting of a red long-sleeved shirt, black sweatpants, a black ski-mask with sewn-on red patches to mark the eyes, and swim-goggles.
When Spider-Man first rids himself of the symbiote, he finds himself without clothing across town from his home. The Human Torch gives him an old Fantastic Four uniform (without boots), a paper bag to conceal his identity... and a "kick me" sign on his back. Years later he again uses a paper bag as an impromptu disguise prior to his new costumes being completed to conceal his identity after a bounty was placed on his head, calling himself the "Bombastic Bag Man", because the White Rabbit was attacking the city after capturing the Grizzly and the Gibbon and none of his other costumes were completed or available yet. The Bag Man costume returns once again in New Warriors vol. 4 when one child is dressed in the suit with other children in other super hero costumes.
If he has no costume and Spider-Man is needed, he will use webbing, street clothes, or whatever else is available to hide his identity. This costume also appeared as one of the Variant covers of "Spider-Man: The Other".
In Spider-Girl, when fighting the super skrull Apex, Peter asked Johnny to loan him a costume, on the condition that it did not include a paper bag and a kick-me sign. Johnny replied that he is offended that Peter thinks he would repeat the same gag, instead lending him an old, ill-fitting Fantastic Four jumpsuit and one of Ben Grimm's metal helmets.
In the 2010 video game Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions the "The Bombastic Bag Man" is a costume that can be used.
Captain Universe and Daredevil
The Uni-Power is an extra-dimensional force that possesses an individual in a time of crisis, transforming that person into Captain Universe. Spider-Man became Captain Universe for a short while beginning in The Spectacular Spider-Man #158, during the "Acts of Vengeance" storyline. The Uni-Power grants him cosmic-level abilities and awareness and as a result, all of his natural spider-powers are greatly enhanced. For example, Spider-Man's strength was amplified to the point of being able to punch the Hulk into orbit. The efficiency of his spider-sense is also enhanced to such a degree that the tingling becomes painful and responds to nearly everything, no matter how minor. He also gains telescopic vision, molecular manipulation capabilities, a high degree of resistance to physical injury, flight, and the power to manipulate great amounts of energy for a variety of purposes. With the Uni-Power at his command, Spider-Man is able to defeat the likes of Magneto and Graviton. Spider-Man, however, does not become aware of the actual 'possession' until much later on because of the powers being partially suppressed by a machine devised by one of Parker's teachers at Empire State University. In the aftermath of the Acts of Vengeance, the suppression is removed in time to battle and defeat the Tri-Sentinel. Both Spider-Man's costume and the traditional Captain Universe attire are merged into a single uniform after Spider-Man gained awareness. Once the Tri-Sentinel is destroyed, Spider-Man loses the Captain Universe powers.
On one occasion, Spider-Man masquerades in Daredevil's costume in order to convince people that Daredevil and Matt Murdock are two different people. Recently, Spider-Man has once again disguised himself as Daredevil when his costume winds up getting stolen by the daughter of Kraven.
Negative Zone and Alex Ross
While traveling to the Negative Zone to rescue three children, Spider-Man's suit transformed into a white and black suit that apparently did nothing other than change his appearance. On a second visit to the Negative Zone, Spider-Man gained a version of his red-and-blue nano-tech suit from the TV series Spider-Man Unlimited. Also, Alex Ross created a specially designed suit with a different makeover for the live action movie (which was still in development at the time). For example, the costume design was more angular than the classic design, the spider insignias on his chest and back were more stylized (and identical to each other), the red boots were missing, and the areas that were typically blue in the classic design—and even the eyepieces—were black. This suit was used in the Spider-Man 2 video game for PlayStation, and in the Spider-Man the movie game for PS2 and on PSone it was available in two versions: the colored red-and-black version, and a sketch version in black-and-white. In Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions, the Negative Zone costume worn by Spider-Man Noir is an alternate costume.
Ben Reilly's costumes
Benjamin "Ben" Reilly (also known as the Scarlet Spider, the second Spider-Man and Spider-Carnage) is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics Universe. He is a clone of Peter Parker (Spider-Man), and is prominent in the Clone Saga. He first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man#149 (October 1975).
Ben Reilly was the first successful clone of Peter Parker created by the Jackal, as the first clone, Kaine, had suffered from clone degeneration which made him become unstable. Through arcane science, Ben is imprinted with Peter's memories and in their first encounter believed himself to be the original. After Peter Parker was captured by the Jackal, both Parker and Reilly found themselves in Spider-Man costumes at Shea Stadium, and initially fought each other believing the other was the imposter. When realizing the stakes, they decided to team up in an attempt to save the Gwen Stacy clone and a captured Ned Leeds. In the process, the clone appeared to be killed in the explosion, and Parker, fearful of the consequences of a second body of "Peter Parker" turning up while he was still alive, dropped Reilly's body in a smokestack. Ben apparently survived and escaped from the smokestack. When he witnessed Parker and Mary Jane Watson in an embrace, decided to part on a nomadic life as if no one knew his existence. He dubbed himself the alias "Ben Reilly", using his Uncle Ben's first name and his Aunt May's maiden name, Ben Parker and May Reilly respectively. He took some old clothes Parker had intended to donate to charity, and he left New York deeply depressed.
Five years later, Reilly discovers that May Parker is dying from a stroke, so he returns to New York. There, Reilly encounters Peter Parker, who has become bitter and angry following several tragedies. While they initially come to blows, they quickly begin working together. Soon after, Reilly dons a makeshift costume, and is dubbed the "Scarlet Spider" by the press. When Peter retired as Spider-Man, Ben donned a new version of the Spider-Man costume as he felt that the original version needed an update, coupled with the fact that he did not feel as though he was ready to shoulder the burdens of the original costume yet.
On a few occasions, Spider-Man has altered his costume for specific purposes. He uses a very short-lived, silver-colored armored suit in Web of Spider-Man #100, developed at Empire State University Labs by the web-slinger. The armor severely impairs his natural agility, though it renders him highly resistant to high caliber bullets. However, the armor is soon destroyed by acid.
In The Amazing Spider-Man #425, he creates an electrically insulated costume to fight Electro. He also previously fashioned another insulated costume from a rubber air mattress to protect himself from Electro in The Spectacular Spider-Man #66, but that was a more of an ad-hoc creation, which he crudely manufactured in an hour. It featured the classic red and blue colors, but not the web pattern or the spider emblem.
In 1998, Parker created four distinct costumes during the "Identity Crisis" storyline, for the identities Dusk, Ricochet, Hornet, and Prodigy. Four other people later used these costumes and identities in the Slingers comic book series. The second Hornet and Dusk were killed, Prodigy was forcefully inducted into the Initiative, and Ricochet retired/joined the Loners.
In The Amazing Spider-Man #500, Peter has a mystical experience where he simultaneously experiences the beginning and the potential end of his career as Spider-Man. This costume he wears in his final battle is utilitarian, consisting solely of a reversible jacket, mask and gloves. In The Amazing Spider-Man #502, Peter receives the design for this exact costume from Leo Zelinsky, The Super-Hero Tailor. This was in response to his criticism that the hero's usual tight costume is unsanitary for his skin, threatening to cause athlete's foot all over his body.
Stark Armor (Iron Spider)
After Spider-Man's newer powers developed in "The Other", Tony Stark (Iron Man) developed a new suit for Peter, which he began wearing in The Amazing Spider-Man #529. Nicknamed the "Iron Spider" costume, it is red and gold: according to Marvel Editor-In-Chief Joe Quesada, "Stark's design, Stark's color!" The suit was designed by Quesada, based on a sketch by Chris Bachalo. The suit's appearance has had a mixed reception from fans.
Supported by a system similar to that of Stark's classic Iron Man design, it features many gadgets, including three mechanical spider-arms, or "waldoes," that can be used to see around corners (via cameras in the tips) and to manipulate objects indirectly. Stark describes them as too delicate to use in combat, yet Spider-Man shortly afterward uses them to smash through the sensors in Titanium Man's helmet. Later on during the Civil War storyline, he uses them, (reluctantly), during his fight with Captain America.
Other features include short-distance gliding capability, limited bulletproofing, built-in fire/police/emergency scanner, audio/visual amplification (including infrared and ultraviolet), cloaking device, carbon filters to keep out airborne toxins, and a short-range GPS microwave communication system. It grants the ability to breathe under water, and can morph into different shapes due to its "'smart' liquid metal" form. It can also "more or less disappear" when not needed due to reactions to neurological impulses as Tony Stark revealed. The new costume is able to look like other styles of costumes Spider-Man has worn over the years or turn into his street clothes. Part of the costume can detach itself from Spider-Man to cover an object too dangerous to touch, such as a radioactive asteroid. All these features are controlled by a computer system in the chest piece. The suit responds to mental control.
The armor also has a secret override that can be activated by Iron Man in case of emergencies or if Spider-Man ever switches sides (which he does in Civil War #5). However, unknown to Stark, Peter was already aware of the safety measure and had bypassed it with his own override, Password Surprise. Perhaps most sinister, Stark discovered a way to give his own Iron Man armor a "spider-sense" based on Peter's, and the ability to give Spider-Man's sense red herrings.
Peter wore this suit as Spider-Man's official costume until writer J. Michael Straczynski chose to revert to the older costume. It was used symbolically to show Peter's divided loyalties during the Civil War event at Marvel Comics, promotional images showing him with the Iron Spider costume alongside the pro-registration heroes and in his classic costume on the anti-registration side.
In Civil War #6, Spider-Man is in his classic costume, but he apparently put this costume away since he returned to his black outfit in early 2007, as seen in Civil War #7. Whether or not Spider-Man still has this costume remains to be seen.
The Stark armor costume has been duplicated and was used by three clones created out of the deceased MVP's genetic material in the Initiative who identify themselves as "Red Team". War Machine labels them Scarlet Spiders. It is unknown what new powers the team possesses, but they have been shown to be using some of the built-in powers such as the cloaking device, communications, and waldoes which the original costume possessed (Avengers: The Initiative #3). One change is that there are now four waldoes, as opposed to three. These suits have the original's morphing ability, as well as web-shooters, and wall-crawling capability.
Marvel: Ultimate Alliance features the "Iron Spidey" costume as Spider-Man's final costume, however, it does not feature the Waldoes. The Wii version of Spider-Man: Web of Shadows also features the Iron Spider outfit as an unlockable costume. Marvel Ultimate Alliance 2 also features this costume as Peter's only Alternate Costume, but this time it includes the Waldoes and the gold parts are now white. This costume can only be unlocked by choosing Pro-Registration. Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions also features the Iron Spider armor as an alternate suit for Spider-Man 2099.
In an episode of Ultimate Spider-Man, Spider-Man wears the Iron Spider costume, although he has no idea of how to control it. But, he does manage to get control of it when he, Iron Fist, White Tiger, Power Man, and Nova help Iron Man fight the Living Laser.
After a disastrous battle with the new Hobgoblin (Phil Urich) in The Amazing Spider-Man #649 and #650, Peter develops a black costume with blue lights using new technology he created from his job at Horizon Labs, which he begins wearing in The Amazing Spider-Man #650 as part of the Big Time story arc.
It is created with a "omni-harmonic mesh" based on one of Henry Pym's theories, with wave-bending technology to both light and sound with Peter adapting concepts he developed during his work with Tony Stark.
It features several modes, the first which turns the lights on his costume neon-green and gives him the ability to be invisible to both visual and audio means except from certain lens and frequencies so allies can see and communicate with him. The green lights on the costume are for the benefit of whoever needs to see him (while wearing the lens), along with himself, as otherwise he is invisible to his own eyes.
The second mode, which turns the lights on his costume red, can cancel out all sonic-based attacks on his person. A side-effect of this is that it disrupts any attempt to communicate with Peter using sound, and vice versa. Using this principle, Peter developed new, lightweight noise-reduction headphones at Horizon Labs.
The costume contains a new type of weapon based similar in shape to his Spider-Tracers, but created from Anti-Metal (also known as Antarctic Vibranium), which can be fired from the top of his wrist at metal objects, causing them to dissolve. Peter can apparently carry a large number of these new Anti-Metal spiders on his person without them causing harm to his own suit or webshooters.
Having been loaned to Kaine for the fight against the Queen, the suit proved instrumental, as it allowed Kaine immunity against the Queen's sonic-based attacks. The stealth suit is currently in Kaine's possession due to Madame Web advising him to hold onto it. However, Madame Web has tampered with the costume so that it is locked permanently in red as a means to perpetuate Kaine's new identity as the Scarlet Spider.[volume & issue needed]
Having lost his spider-sense in The Amazing Spider-Man #654, Peter is shot while in the process of dodging automatic gunfire from the villain Massacre. Realising his new vulnerability, Peter pulls out a new black suit with the spider emblem in yellow, which he had been keeping in storage at Horizon Labs. The suit is designed to be bulletproof up to an unknown degree, but not impeding Spider-Man's agility. It has been observed to prevent assault rifle and multiple sniper rifle shots from penetrating the armor. It comes equipped with magnetic webbing which can block all radio frequencies, such as remote control explosives.
The suit is apparently made of a lightweight, impact-resistant polymer in which he applies to a motorcycle crash helmet at Horizon Labs. The new helmet is cheap, easy to mass-produce, and has ten times the strength of a normal helmet.[volume & issue needed]
The suit appears as one of Spider-Man's alternate costumes in the updated game Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3 created by Capcom.
Upon joining the Future Foundation as part of Johnny Storm's last request in his will, Spider-Man is given a new white costume made from third-generation unstable molecules which has several default color schemes which can be changed by mental control. This suit never gets dirty and allows him to change this costume to his classic red and blue or in civilian clothes, although in other Marvel titles (such as "The Avengers" or "The New Avengers") he uses always the white and black scheme. Because of this, now Peter uses this costume regularly, being the first change of regular suit since the Black Costume.[volume & issue needed]
Ends of the Earth
Spider-Man now has a new suit of powered armor that incorporates the benefits of both the Iron Spider armor, his more recent stealth armor, and his bulletproof armor. Additionally it provides him with Class 100 strength and durability, near-complete invulnerability,(the Rhino was able to damage it), and further enhances his already formidable agility and spider-sense beyond its normal limits. It also has flight capabilities and can shoot powerful energy blasts. It has been shown to be immune to Electro's attacks, and comes equipped with infrared vision that allows him to see through Mysterio's illusions, as well as enhanced audio receptors modeled after Daredevil's heightened sense of hearing, which allows Spider-Man to determine the Chameleon's heartbeat even when his old foe is in disguise. The web-shooters are heavily modified gauntlets, which can fire larger amounts of webbing than his normal ones. The armor is equipped with all types of webbing, including his acid and magnetic varieties, as well as his cryogenic spider-tracers.[volume & issue needed]
The Superior Spider-Man costume
When Otto Octavius takes over Peter Parker's body, feelings and memories he decides to take over Peter's role as a superhero. As such, he redesigns the original red and blue costume, enhancing his own abilities. Octavius adds some carbonadium plating over his neck and skull, talons on his hands and feet, split-toed footwear fashioned as jika-tabi shoes, a slightly different, more imposing spider-motif on his back and enhanced lenses in his costume, with HUD and tracking abilities. He also retains access to some of his former hideouts as the Doctor Octopus, coupling Horizon Tech-derived inventions with his own peculiar brand of technology, circumventing the restraint and financial difficulties plaguing Peter Parker as a scientist 
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