Spanish-based creole languages
Spanish Creole languages
Chavacano (also Chabacano) is a Spanish-based Creole language and the name of the Six Dialects of Spanish evolved words turned into a Creole language spoken in the Philippines. The name of the language stems from the Spanish word Chabacano which means "tasteless", "common", or "vulgar". Dialects of Chavacano are spoken in Cavite City and Ternate (both in Luzon); Zamboanga, Cotabato and Davao (in Mindanao), Isabela City and other part of Province of Basilan and other places. According to a 2007 census, there are 2,502,185 speakers excluding outside the Philippines. It is the major language of Zamboanga City. Chavacano is also spoken in Cavite City and in parts of Ternate, Cavite and Sabah, Malaysia nearest to the Philippines, and even in Brunei and Latin America, because of recent migrations.
Most of the vocabulary comes from Spanish, while the grammar is mostly based on the Austronesian structure. It is used in primary education, television, and radio. Recently English words are infiltrating the language.
The ethnic group which speaks this Creole consists only of 2,500 people, as of 1989.
The village was formed by escaped slaves (Maroons) and Native Americans. Since many slaves had not been subjected to a lot of contact with white people, the palenqueros spoke Creole languages from Spanish language and their African ones.
Spanish speakers are unable to understand Palenquero. There are some influences from Kongo in Democratic Republic of Congo. As of 1998, 10% of the population of age under 25 years speaks Palenquero. Most common to the elderly.
Variations of Spanish with some Creolizations
Dominican Spanish is spoken in the Dominican Republic, along with the Dominican diaspora (mainly in New York, Miami, New Jersey, and Boston). The Dominican Republic dialect of Spanish was formed from historical influences, and the contact from foreign languages, such as Haitian Creole and West African languages from the imported slaves. Non-Dominican Spanish speakers often have difficulties understanding the Dominican Spanish language, due to differences in syntax and vocabulary, but in particular the relatively high speed of Dominican speech. This, however does not mean that Dominicans cannot communicate to other Spanish speakers, a Non-Dominican Spanish speaker can understand Dominicans, just as long as they speak slowly and withdraw the use of idioms common in Dominican Spanish.
Caribbean Spanish is not a creole language itself, but it would be a continuum poscriollo semicriollo or a possible range from pan-Caribbean Spanish, which would have restructured based on an afroportugués pidgin.
Spanish-influenced Creole languages
The Annobonese language is spoken by 9,000 people on the islands of Ano Bom and Bioko, in Equatorial Guinea. It is locally called Falar de Ano Bom (Fá d'Ambô or even Fla d'Ambu). It is a Portuguese-based creole, similar to Forro, with some borrowings from Spanish. In fact, Fá d'Ambô is derived from Forro as it shares the same structure (82% of lexicon). In the 15th century, the island was uninhabited and discovered by Portugal but, by the 18th century, Portugal exchanged it and some other territories in Africa for Uruguay with Spain. Spain wanted to get territory in Africa, and Portugal wanted to enlarge even more the territory that they saw as the “New Portugal” (Brazil). Nevertheless, the populace of Ano Bom was against the shift and was hostile toward the Spaniards. This hostility, combined with the isolation of mainland Equatorial Guinea and the proximity of São Tomé and Príncipe — just 400 km from the island — has assured the maintenance of its identity.
Fá d'Ambô has gained some words of Spanish origin (10% of lexicon), but some words are dubious in origin because Spanish and Portuguese are closely related languages.
See also: History of Equatorial Guinea
Nigerian Pidgin is a pidgin language spoken in Nigeria, based on English. The Spanish influence can be seen, as Spanish slave ships traded off the coast of Nigeria. One example is the Nigerian word "sabi", which means "to know", which comes from the Portuguese and Spanish words "saber", which have the same meaning.
The Proto-Afro-Portuguese theory is the most widely accepted hypothesis about the genesis of Papiamentu.
This Creole is reportedly becoming more similar to Spanish as the time passes due to extensive contact with the Hispanophone countries (particularly Venezuela), but it was originally Portuguese-based.
Because of the similarities between these Iberian languages, it is difficult to ascertain whether a certain feature is derived from Portuguese, Spanish or Ladino, after the adaptation to Papiamento rules.
Pichinglis is spoken in the Bioko island, Equatorial Guinea. It originates in the arrival of Krio speakers from the mainland. Krio is a Creole that derives most of its vocabulary from English, but the Spanish colonization of Guinea exerted Spanish influence in lexicon and grammar.
Haitian Creole is spoken primarily in Haiti, along with the Haitian diaspora throughout the world. Haitian Creole originated from working-class and colonial French, along with the language of some Indian, Spanish, and English masters of African slaves. The Spanish influence can be heard in the vocabulary and some phonetic features.
San Andrés–Providencia Creole
San Andrés–Providencia Creole is one of the main languages of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina (alongside Spanish and English) which uses expression and words from English (73%), Spanish (17%) and African descents.
- For a discussion about the origins of Papiamentu, see "Papiamentu facts", an essay by Attila Narin.
- RAE: Real Academia Española.
- Association for Portuguese and Spanish Lexically Based Creoles (ACBLPE)