Quran and miracles
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Muslims consider the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, as the word of God and a miracle. According to Islamic tradition, the Qur'an was revealed miraculously to Muhammad by Allah (God) through angel Jibrīl (Gabriel) as a perfect, verbatim copy of what was written in heaven and had existed there from all eternity. Therefore the verses of the book are referred to as ayat, which also means "a sign" in the Arabic language. Muslims therefore believe that the Qur'an is the same as was revealed to Muhammad from the year 610 to 633. In the Qur'an is stated an open challenge for anyone who denies its claimed divine origin to produce a text like it. [Quran 17:88][11:12–13][2:23]
The Qur'an states that Muhammad neither read a book nor wrote a book [Quran 29:48] and that he did not know about past events [Quran 3:44][11:49][28:44]. However critics believe that Muhammad was influenced by older Jewish and Christian traditions, and therefore included many of the wonders known from the Bible in the Qur'an. Some Muslims believe that Quran is a "a miracle of eloquence" rather than a source of scientific revelation; they consider scientific miracles as pseudoscience.
The claimed miracles in the Qur'an can be classified into three distinct categories: inimitability, scientific miracles and prophecies.
Inimitability of the Qur'an
Inimitability is the theological and literary term used by Muslims for what they consider to be the matchless nature of the Qur'anic discourse. Islamic scholars believe that the Quran has an insuperable literary style and that this is a proof of its divine origin and cannot be matched by human endeavor.
Much support exists for the belief that Qur'anic speech was unique among the linguistic productions of seventh-century Arabs; many Muslim scholars believe that the speech in the Qur'an is like a rhymed pattern, which is characterized by the assonance at the end of the verses.
The belief that Qur'an had prophesied scientific theories and discoveries has become strong and widespread in the contemporary Islamic world; these prophecies are often provided as a proof of the divine origin of the Qur'an. The claim is that scientific facts exist in the Qur'an in many different subjects, including creation, astronomy, human reproduction, oceanology, embroyology, zoology, the water cycle, and many more.
One such claim is based on an interpretation of the passage in the Qur'an which states: "Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them and we made every living thing of water? Will they not then believe?"[Quran 21:30] Muslims claim that the first part of the verse is referring to the Big Bang and the second part of the verse refers to the fact that all living things are made of water since and water being a necessary component for life. Muslims also believe that the Qur'an also refers to the protective properties of the atmosphere when it says, “We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from Our Signs.”[Quran 21:32] In addition to this, Muslims believe the Qur'an mentions the rotation and orbit of the Sun and the Moon when it states, "It is He who created the night and the day, and the sun, and the moon; each of them swim along in its rounded course."[Quran 21:33]
"a time is fixed for every prophecy; you will come to know in time".[Quran 6:67] Islamic scholar Zaghloul El-Naggar thinks that this verse refers to the scientific facts in the Qur'an that would be discovered by the world in modern time, centuries after the revelation.
This belief is, however, arguable in the Muslim world. While most believe and support it, some Muslim scholars oppose the belief, claiming that the Qur'an is not a book of science; al-Biruni, one of the most celebrated Muslim scientists of the classical period, assigned to the Qur'an a separate and autonomous realm of its own and held that the Qur'an "does not interfere in the business of science nor does it infringe on the realm of science." These scholars argued for the possibility of multiple scientific explanations of the natural phenomena, and refused to subordinate the Qur'an to an ever-changing science.
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (January 2013)|
Some Muslims believe that the Qur'an predicted many events years before they happened. They argue that such prophecies are proof of the divine origin of Qur'an.
For example, Muslims say that the Qur'an predicted the eventual defeat of the Persians by the Romans at the Battle of Issus (622). At the Battle of Antioch in 613 AD, the Persians defeated the Romans and took control over important Byzantine territories expanding into Syria, Jerusalem, Armenia, and Egypt. A few years after the severe defeat of the Byzantine armies by the Persians, this verse was revealed in the Qur'an, "The Romans have been defeated. In a land close by; but they will soon be victorious-Within a few years. Allah's is the command before and after; and on that day the believers shall rejoice."[Quran 30:2-4] In 622 AD at the Battle of Issus, the Romans successfully defeated the Persians, confirming the prophecy in the Quran.
Another prophecy, according to Muslim beliefs, predicted the preservation of the Pharaoh of the Exodus's body. The Qur'an states, "We brought the tribe of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh and his troops pursued them out of tyranny and enmity. Then, when he was on the point of drowning, he (Pharaoh) said: ‘I believe that there is no god but Him in Whom the tribe of Israel believes. I am one of the Muslims.’ What, now! When previously you rebelled and were one of the corrupters? Today we will preserve your body so you can be a sign for people who come after you. Surely many people are heedless of Our Signs." [Quran 10:90-92] The Pharaoh of the Exodus is commonly said to be either Ramesses II or his son, Merneptah. Both of the 2 people's bodies are on display in the Royal Mummies Room at the Egyptian Museum, thus, Muslims believe that the prophecy has been fulfilled.
Another prophecy, according to Muslim beliefs, predicted the sea and river, their natures were known in the start of 20th century but Muslims believe that Quran identified it in 1400 years before, the verse is "He is the one who has set free the two kinds of water, one sweet and palatable, and the other salty and bitter. And He has made between them a barrier and a forbidding partition." [Quran 25:53] This verse, according to Muslims, relates to the Mediterranean Sea of saltwater which meets Atlantic Ocean of sweet water but they do not mix each other. Other verses are [Quran 55:19-20] Thus, today's researchers confirms this prophecy is valid while a few do not.
According to some Muslims one more prophecy has been fulfilled, the voyage to the moon. It is considered by Muslims that it is prophesied according to the verse "And [I swear by] the moon when it is full, you will mount up stage by stage! What is the matter with them, that they have no faith?" [Quran 84:18-20]. Yet it is claimed by critics that stages referred in this verse is the stages of life. They argue that this chapter only talks about the day of resurrection and judgement.
Another prediction made by the Qur'an, according to Muslims, is its own preservation. “Verily, We have revealed the Reminder (The Quran), and verily We shall preserve it (from corruption).” [Quran 15:9] The Qur'an predicted that it would remain preserved from corruption for over a thousand years, and most Muslim scholars agree that today's Qur'an is the same Qur'an originally compiled by Prophet Muhammad.
- The International Commission on Scientific Signs in the Qur'an and the Sunnah
- Quran and Science website
- The Scientific Miracles of the Holy Quran
- The Miracles of The Qu'ran - Muhammad Mitwalli ash-Sha’rawi
- Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar website
- The Inimitable Qur'an
- Fussilat – Scientific Miracles in the Holly Quran
- Istanbul Quran Research Association (IQRA)
- The Secrets of the Qur’an’s Miracles, Website of AbdulDaem Al-Kaheel
- Quran Miracles Encyclopedia
- Qur’an’s Miracles
- Miracles of Quran
- F. Tuncer, "International Conferences on Islam in the Contemporary World", March 4–5, 2006, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A., p. 95–96
- Wilson, Christy: "The Qur'an" in A Lion Handbook The World's Religion, p. 315
- Wilson, ibid.
- F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5
- Gril, Denis. "Miracles" Encyclopaedia of the Quran.
- F. Tuncer, ibid.
- Wilson, p. 316
- Sheikh Mahmud Shaltut, Dr. Aisha Abd al-Rahman, and Khaled Montaser were among the ones who rejected the idea the Quran scientific miracles. Arabic original source (Google English translation))
- وهم الإعجاز العلمى (Arabic book for Dr. Khaled Montaser, titled meaning: The lie of scientific miracles)
- Encyclopaedia of the Qur-an — Inimitability
- Encyclopaedia of the Qur-an — Miracles
- Ahmad Dallal, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Quran and science
- "Science in The Qur'an" Evidence That Islam is True
- "The Scientific Miracles of the Qur'an" Mission Islam
- Encyclopaedia of the Qur-an — Byzantines
- Tafheem-ul-Quran Volume 3, Introduction to Sura Room (Rome)ie Chapter#30 and the explanation of the first four verses
- "Ar-Rum" USC Muslim Students Association Islamic Sever
- Farhat, Amtul. "Pharaoh of Moses: A Quranic Prophecy Fulfilled"
- William Montgomery Watt in The Cambridge History of Islam, p.32
- Richard Bell, William Montgomery Watt, 'introduction to the Qurʼān', p.51
- F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5: “Few have failed to be convinced that … the Quran is … the words of Muhammad, perhaps even dictated by him after their recitation.”
- "How the Holy Qur'an was Preserved" quran.org.uk