Putuo District occupies the southeastern part of Zhoushan archipelago. It includes the eastern end of the archipelago Zhoushan Island, which is the largest island of the archipelago, and many dozens of smaller islands. Among them:
- the small, but famous Putuo Island (Putuo Shan, i.e. "Mount Putuo"). Putuo Island with nearby small islets is administratively organized as Putuo Town within Putuo District.
- Zhujiajian Island (朱家尖), connected to Zhoushan Island by a bridge, and administratively organized as Zhujiajian Town.
- Dengbu Island, organized as an eponymous township
- Mayi Island (literally, "Ant Island"), organized as an eponymous township
- Zhongjieshan Island Chain (中街山列岛), organized as Dongji.
- many others, with half a dozen towns and townships on them