Prisons in Russia
Prisons in Russia can be categorized under four types of facilities:
- pre-trial institutions;
- educative or juvenile labor colonies;
- corrective labor colonies; and
The corrective colony (Исправительная Колония or ИК; ispravitelnaya koloniya or IK) is the most common, with 760 institutions in 2004 across the many administrative divisions of Russia. There were also 8 prisons (тюрьма or tyroomi), 62 juvenile facilities, and 192 pre-trial facilities in 2004.
Prisons in Russia are administered by the Federal Penitentiary Service (FSIN).
Corrective labor colonies
Corrective colony regimes are categorized as very strict / special, strict, general, and open. The detachment (отря́д or otryad) is the basic unit of the prison. When not in the detatchment, prisoners are required to particpate in penal labour, which is in the form of work brigades in colony production zones where prisoners earn a wage of which most is paid to the colony for their upkeep.
The detachment is largely self-organized, with the prison administration designating the "head monitor" with the job of keeping order and to liaise with the prison administration, and is supported by various prisoners' committees responsible for health and safety, cleanliness, energy saving, and also psychological counselling. Female detatchments organize cultural and social activities such as beauty pageants, variously called by such names as "Miss Colony", "Miss Spring", and "Miss Personality".
Isolation is common, and family breakdowns and loss of contact with children is frequent among female prisoners. A majority of women convicted in Moscow courts are taken to correctional colonies located between 200km and 500km from Moscow, and the long journey to the penal colonies is simply too expensive or too difficult for visitors. Nearly 3/4 of prisoners receive no family visits at all. The FSIN's most recent solution is to suggest that prisoners talk with their loved ones using Skype.
Pre-trial detention↑Jump back a section
List of prisons
- Roth 2006, p. 231.
- Roth 2006, p. 232.
- Pallot, Judith (23 October 2012). "How will the Pussy Riot band members fare in Russia's 'harshest prisons'?". The Guardian.
- "Russian women's prison camps: An ex-inmate's account". BBC News. 22 October 2012.