|A-17 / Nomad|
|Primary users||United States Army Air Corps
Swedish Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
South African Air Force
|Developed from||Northrop Gamma|
Development and design
The Northrop Gamma 2F was an attack bomber derivative of the Northrop Gamma transport aircraft, developed in parallel with the Northrop Gamma 2C, (of which one was built), designated the YA-13 and XA-16. The Gamma 2F had a revised tail, cockpit canopy and wing flaps compared with the Gamma 2C, and was fitted with a new semi-retractable undercarriage. It was delivered to the United States Army Air Corps for tests on 6 October 1934, and after modification, including fitting with a conventional fixed undercarriage, was accepted by the Air Corps. A total of 110 aircraft were ordered as the A-17 in 1935.
The resulting A-17 was equipped with perforated flaps, had fixed landing gear with partial fairing. It was fitted with an internal fuselage bomb bay that carried fragmentation bombs and well as external bomb racks.
Northrop developed a new undercarriage, this time completely retractable, producing the A-17A variant. This version was again purchased by the Army Air Corps, who placed orders for 129 aircraft. By the time these were delivered, the Northrop Corporation had been taken over by Douglas Aircraft Company, export models being known as the Douglas Model 8.
The A-17 entered service in February 1936, and proved a reliable and popular aircraft. However, in 1938, the Air Corps decided that attack aircraft should be multi-engined, rendering the A-17 surplus to requirements.
The last remaining A-17s, used as utility aircraft, were retired from USAAF service in 1944.
Argentina purchased 30 Model 8A-2s in 1937 and received them between February and March 1938. Their serial numbers were between 348 and 377. These remained in front line service until replaced by the I.Ae. 24 Calquin, continuing in service as trainers and reconnaissance aircraft until their last flight in 1954.
Peru ordered 10 Model 8A-3Ps, these being delivered from 1938 onwards. These aircraft were used in combat by Peru in the Ecuadorian-Peruvian war of July 1941. The survivors of these aircraft were supplemented by 13 Model 8A-5s from Norway (see below), delivered via the United States in 1943 (designated A-33). These remained in service until 1958.
The Swedish government purchased a licence for production of a Mercury powered version, building 63 B 5Bs and 31 B 5Cs, production taking place from 1938 to 1941. They were replaced in service with the Swedish Air Force by SAAB 17s from 1944. The Swedish version was used as a dive bomber and as such it featured prominently in the 1941 film 'Första Divisionen'.
The Netherlands, in urgent need of modern combat aircraft, placed an order for 18 Model 8A-3Ns in 1939, with all being delivered by the end of the year. Used in a fighter role for which they were unsuited, the majority were destroyed by Luftwaffe attacks on 10 May 1940, the first day of the German invasion. (In his 1975 book on Dutch aviation history Vermetele vliegende Hollanders ("Daring Flying Dutchmen"), Dutch aviation historian and illustrator Thijs Postma incorrectly lists these aircraft as Douglas 8A.)
Norway ordered 36 Model 8A-5Ns in 1940. These were not ready by the time of the German Invasion of Norway and were diverted to Norwegian Training unit in Canada, which became known as Little Norway. Norway decided to sell 18 of these aircraft as surplus to Peru, but these were embargoed by the United States, who requisitioned the aircraft, using them as trainers, designating them the A-33. Norway sold their surviving aircraft to Peru in 1943.
In June 1940, 93 ex-USAAC aircraft were purchased by France, and refurbished by Douglas, including being given new engines. These were not delivered before the fall of France and 61 were taken over by the British Purchasing Commission for the British Commonwealth use under the name Northrop Nomad Mk I.
The Royal Canadian Air Force received 32 ex-French Nomads. The remaining 32 aircraft from the French order were transferred to Canada, where they were also used as advanced trainers and target tugs; these were serialled 3490 to 3521; all were assigned to No. 3 Training Command RCAF.
- Initial production for USAAC. Fixed undercarriage, powered by 750 hp (560 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1535-11 Twin Wasp Jr engine; 110 built.
- Revised version for USAAC with retractable undercarriage and 825 hp (615 kW) R-1535-13 engine; 129 built.
- Three seat staff transport version for USAAC. Powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp engine; two built.
- Model 8A-1
- Export version for Sweden. Fixed undercarriage. Two Douglas built prototypes (Swedish designation B 5A), followed by 63 licensed built (by ASJA) B 5B aircraft powered by 920 hp (686 kW) Bristol Mercury XXIV engine; 31 similar B 5C built by SAAB. One 8A-1 was also purchased by Bristol Aeroplane Co. in 1937 which was modified to test its new Hercules radial engine.
- Model 8A-2
- Version for Argentina. Fitted with fixed undercarriage, ventral gun position and powered by 840 hp (626 kW) Wright R-1820-G3 Cyclone; 30 built.
- Model 8A-3N
- Version of A-17A for Netherlands. Powered by 1,100 hp (820 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp engine; 18 built.
- Model 8A-3P
- Version of A-17A for Peru. Powered by 1,000 hp (746 kW) R-1820 engine; 10 built.
- Model 8A-4
- Version for Iraq, powered by a 1,000 hp (746 kW) R-1820-G103 engine; 15 built.
- Model 8A-5N
- Version for Norway, powered by 1,200 hp (895 kW) R-1830 engine; 36 built. Later impressed into USAAF service as Douglas A-33.
- A-17A, U.S. Army Ser. No. 36-0207 c/n 234, ex-3rd Attack Group (Barksdale Field), On display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio
- Fuerza Aérea Argentina
- Grupo "A" de la Escuela de Aplicación de Aviación ("'A' Group, School of Aviation Administration"), BAM El Palomar
- Regimiento Aéreo Nº3 de Bombardeo Liviano ("No.3 'Liviano' (Light Bombing) Air Regiment"), BAM El Plumerillo
- Fuerza Aérea Argentina
- Royal Canadian Air Force
- No. 3 Training Command
- Royal Canadian Air Force
- Iraq 
- South Africa
- United States
Data from McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920
- Crew: two (pilot and gunner)
- Length: 31 ft 8⅝ in (9.67 m)
- Wingspan: 47 ft 8½ in (14.54 m)
- Height: 11 ft 10½ in (3.62 m)
- Wing area: 363 sq ft (33.7m²)
- Empty weight: 4,874 lb (2,211 kg)
- Loaded weight: 7,337 lb (3,328 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1535-11 Twin Wasp Jr two-row air-cooled radial engine, 750 hp (560 kW)
- Maximum speed: 206 mph (179 knots, 332 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 170 mph (149 knots, 274 km/h)
- Range: 650 mi (565 nmi, 1,046 km)
- Service ceiling: 19,400 ft (5,915 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,350 ft/min (6.9 m/s)
- 4 × 0.3 in (7.62 mm) fixed forward M1919 Browning machine guns
- 1 × 0.3 in (7.62 mm) trainable rear machine gun
- Internal bay for bombs
- External wing bomb racks (total bomb load 1,200 lb/544 kg)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast May–June 1998. pp. 63-64.
- "A-17/8A Light Attack Bomber." Boeing. Retrieved: 11 February 2008.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast May–June 1998, p. 65.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast May–June 1998, pp. 64–65.
- Fact Sheet - A-17A National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 12 February 2008.
- Conaway, William. "VI Bombardment Command History." Planes and Pilots Of World War Two. Retrieved: 6 August 2011.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast May–June 1998, p. 67.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast September/October 1998, p. 2.
- Bontti 2003, p. 21.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast September/October 1998, p. 6.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast September/October 1998, pp. 12–13.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast September/October 1998, pp. 3–4.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast September/October 1998, p. 3.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast September/October 1998, p. 4.
- Pelletier Air Enthusiast September/October 1998, pp. 4, 6.
- Donald 1995, p. 212.
- "Something Up Its Sleeve." Flight International, 7 October 1937, p. 359.
- "36-0207." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 6 August 2011.
- Museum FAP 8A-3P
- "8A-3P on display." geocities.com. Retrieved: 6 August 2011.
- Francillon 1979, p. 222.
- Bontti, Sergio and Jorge Nuñez Padin, eds. "Northrop 8A-2 (in Portuguese)". Serie Fuerza Aérea Argentina #8, October 2003.
- Donald, David, ed. American Warplanes of World War II. London: Aerospace, 1995. ISBN 1-874023-72-7.
- Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920. London: Putnam, 1979. ISBN 0-370-00050-1.
- Pelletier, Alain J. "Northrop's Connection: The unsung A-17 attack aircraft and its legacy - Part 1". Air Enthusiast, No. 75, May–June 1998, pp. 62–67. Stamford, Lincolnshire: Key Publishing. ISSN 0143-5490.
- Pelletier, Alain J. "Northrop's Connection: The unsung A-17 attack aircraft and its legacy - Part 2". Air Enthusiast, No. 77, September/October 1998, pp. 2–15. Stamford, Lincolnshire: Key Publishing. ISSN 0143-5490.
- Widfeldt, Bo and Åke Hall. B 5 Störtbombepoken (in Swedish). Nässjö, Sweden: Air Historic Research AB U.B., 2000. ISBN 91-971605-7-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Northrop A-17|
- National Museum of the United States Air Force
- Information Relating to the A-17
- "Bullet Nose Fighter Flies 200 Miles An Hour" Popular Mechanics, September 1937