No. 461 Squadron RAAF
|No. 461 Squadron RAAF|
A No. 461 Squadron Sunderland Mark V landing at Pembroke Dock, Wales in 1944
|Active||25 April 1942 – 4 June 1945|
|Branch||Royal Australian Air Force|
|Part of||No. 19 Group RAF, Coastal Command|
|Motto||"They shall not pass unseen"|
|Disbanded||4 June 1945|
|Squadron Badge heraldry||A demi-shark couped, pierced by a harpoon|
|Squadron Codes||UT (April 1942 – August 1943, July 1944 – June 1945)|
No. 461 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force maritime patrol squadron during World War II which operated under Royal Air Force control flying in Europe and over the Atlantic. The Squadron was formed in 1942 and was disbanded in 1945.
No. 461 Squadron was formed at RAF Mount Batten in Britain on 25 April 1942 as an anti-submarine squadron. Equipped with Short Sunderland aircraft the Squadron began flying operational anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic in July. While some of No. 461 Squadron's aircrew had previously served with No. 10 Squadron RAAF most of the aircrew were inexperienced and required further training and flight experience. No. 461 Squadron encountered its first U-Boat in September but was not successful in sinking any submarines during 1942. The Squadron flew a number of transport flights to Gibraltar in October in support of Operation Torch. During 1943 No. 461 Squadron mainly conducted daylight anti-submarine patrols over the Bay of Biscay. These patrols exposed the Squadron's aircraft to frequent attacks by German fighters. The Sunderland aircraft were fitted with a heavy defensive armament, however, and were often successful in beating off fighter attacks. During 1943 the Squadron sank a total of three submarines and damaged several other submarines. By May 1943 No. 461 Squadron was fully equipped with the more advanced Mark III Sunderland. This aircraft allowed the Squadron to operate at night. Equipped with these improved aircraft the Squadron continued to fly anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic, including patrols in support of the Allied landing in Normandy. During 1944 the squadron sank three submarines and damaged a further three.
Following the liberation of France the numbers of German U-boats in the Atlantic declined and No. 461 Squadron made few contacts with the enemy between October 1944 and the end of the war. No. 461 Squadron was disbanded at Pembroke Dock on 4 June 1945.
During the war No. 461 destroyed a total of six German submarines. These submarines were:
- U-332 (1 May 1943)
- U-461 (30 July 1943)
- U-106 (2 August 1943)
- U-571 (28 January 1944)
- U-385 (10 August 1944)
- U-270 (13 August 1944)
In exchange, the squadron lost 20 Sunderlands to enemy action and accidents. 86 squadron members of all nationalities were killed on operations.
|April 1942||May 1943||Short Sunderland||Mk.II|
|August 1942||June 1945||Short Sunderland||Mk.III|
|February 1945||June 1945||Short Sunderland||Mk.V|
|25 April 1942||31 August 1942||RAF Mount Batten, Devon|
|31 August 1942||21 April 1943||RAF Hamworthy Junction, (Poole Harbour) Dorset|
|21 April 1943||20 June 1945||RAF Pembroke Dock, Pembrokeshire, Wales||Det. at RAF Sullom Voe, Shetland Islands, Scotland, 28 September 1944 – 29 October 1944|
|May 1942||August 1942||Wing Commander N.A.R. Halliday|
|August 1942||January 1943||Wing Commander R.C.O. Lovelock|
|January 1943||February 1944||Wing Commander D.L.G. Douglas, DFC|
|February 1944||February 1945||Wing Commander J.M. Hampshire, DFC|
|February 1945||June 1945||Wing Commander R.R. Oldham|
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- Bowyer, Michael J.F. and John D.R. Rawlings. Squadron Codes, 1937–56. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1979. ISBN 0-85059-364-6.
- Delve, Ken. The Source Book of the RAF. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1994. ISBN 1-85310-451-5.
- Eather, Steve. Flying Squadrons of the Australian Defence Force. Weston Creek, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications, 1995. ISBN 1-875671-15-3.
- Flintham, Vic and Andrew Thomas. Combat Codes: A full explanation and listing of British, Commonwealth and Allied air force unit codes since 1938. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-84037-281-8.
- Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth, 1918–1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain(Historians) Ltd., 1988, p. 484. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Jefford, C.G. RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1988 (second edition 2001). ISBN 1-85310-053-6.
- RAAF Historical Section (1995). Units of the Royal Australian Air Force, a Concise History. Volume 4, maritime and transport units. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1995.
- Southall, Ivan. They shall not pass unseen. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson, 1956.
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