Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress
The Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress (commonly: ANDP-Zaman Lahiya, French: Alliance nigérienne pour la démocratie et le progrès-Zaman Lahiya) is a political party in Niger. Moumouni Adamou Djermakoye led the party from its foundation in the early 1990s until his death in 2009.
Djermakoye was the leader of one of two major factions that emerged in the National Movement for the Development of Society (MNSD) in 1991. Djermakoye was a member of the Zarma (Djerma) ethnic group, which had previously dominated the party, but rival faction leader Tandja Mamadou was elected as President of the MNSD in November 1991 with the support of non-Zarma elements in the party. Djermakoye then split from the MNSD and formed the Club of the Friends of Moumouni Adamou Djermakoye (CAMAD), which subsequently became the Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ANDP).
Djermakoye was the ANDP's candidate in the 1993 presidential election; after he received fourth place, with 15.24% of the vote, in the first round, the ANDP, as part of a coalition called the Alliance of the Forces of Change (AFC), backed second place candidate Mahamane Ousmane of the Democratic and Social Convention for the run-off vote, and Ousmane prevailed against the MNSD's Tandja. The ANDP formed part of the AFC parliamentary majority after the 1993 parliamentary election, in which the ANDP won 11 seats, with Djermakoye becoming President of the National Assembly. The ANDP's split from the MNSD has been seen as crucial in enabling the opposition's victory.
The AFC majority, including the ANDP, lasted until the Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) split from the AFC in September 1994, leading to a new parliamentary election in January 1995 in which the AFC was beaten by an opposition coalition primarily composed of the MNSD and the PNDS. The ANDP won nine seats and remained with the AFC in opposition.
Following a January 1996 military coup, Djermakoye again ran unsuccessfully for president as the ANDP candidate in July 1996, receiving fifth place and 4.77% of the vote. After Maïnassara's victory, the ANDP recognized it and supported him. In the November 1996 parliamentary election, which was boycotted by the opposition, the ANDP won eight seats, taking second place. In early 1998 the ANDP joined a pro-Maïnassara alliance of three parties, the Alliance of Democratic and Social Forces. On April 28, 1998, Djermakoye announced that the ANDP was splitting with Maïnassara, alleging that the latter had "humiliated and marginalised" the party.
Following another coup in April 1999, in which Maïnassara was killed, Djermakoye ran in the October 1999 presidential election, receiving fifth place and 7.73% of the vote, while the ANDP won four seats in the November 1999 parliamentary election. Djermakoye backed PNDS candidate Mahamadou Issoufou in the second round of the presidential election; Issoufou was defeated by MNSD candidate Tandja. Following the election, the ANDP was an opposition party and took part in the same parliamentary group as the Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP-Jama'a).
In July 2002, the ANDP joined the parliamentary majority coalition, the Alliance of Democratic Forces, leaving the opposition Coordination of Democratic Forces. Djermakoye joined the government as a Minister of State in November 2002, serving in that position until December 2004.
On September 19, 2004, at the ANDP's third extraordinary congress, Djermakoye was again chosen by the party as its presidential candidate, saying that he did not intend to run again in the 2009 presidential election. In the presidential election of 16 November 2004, he won 6.07% of the vote, taking fifth place. Like the three other parties whose candidates were eliminated in the first round, the ANDP backed Tandja in the second round. In the parliamentary election, which was held along with the presidential second round on 4 December, the party won 5.44% of the popular vote and 5 out of 113 seats.
- Myriam Gervais, "Niger: Regime Change, Economic Crisis, and Perpetuation of Privilege", in Political Reform in Francophone Africa (1997), ed. John F. Clark and David E. Gardinier, pages 100–101.
- Jibrin Ibrahim and Abdoulayi Niandou Souley, "The rise to power of an opposition party: the MNSD in Niger Republic", Unisa Press, Politeia, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1996.
- Elections in Niger, African Elections Database.
- "Presidential ally breaks ranks", IRIN-West Africa Update 196", April 28, 1998.
- "Après l'élection présidentielle contestée", Afrique Express (French).
- "Elections législatives de novembre 1996", Afrique Express (French).
- "NIGER: New presidential alliance", IRIN-West Africa Update 137, February 3, 1998.
- "RAPPORT DE LA MISSION D’OBSERVATION DES ELECTIONS PRESIDENTIELLES ET LEGISLATIVES DES 17 OCTOBRE ET 24 NOVEMBRE 1999", democratie.francophonie.org (French).
- Parliamentary groups in the National Assembly, National Assembly web site (2001 archive page) (French).
- "L’ANDP de Djermakoye rallie la mouvance présidentielle", Afrique Express, No. 253, July 30, 2002 (French).
- List of governments of Niger, izf.net (French).
- "Congrès de l’ANDP Zaman Lahiya : Moumouni A. Djermakoye investi candidat aux Présidentielles : “ je ne serai pas candidat en 2009. ”", La Roue de l'Histoire, September 21–27, 2004 (French).
- "Présidentielle au Niger : un quatrième parti, le RDP, soutient la candidature de Mamadou Tandja au second tour", Xinhua, November 23, 2004 (French).