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|Nepalese Army (नेपाली सेना)|
Flag of Nepalese Army
|Active||1768 - present|
|Country||Republic of Nepal|
|Allegiance||Government of Nepal|
|Engagements||Battle against Mir Kassim 1763
Battle of Pauwa Gadhi against Captain Kinloch, 1767
Anglo-Nepal War 1814 AD
First Nepal - Tibet War
Last Nepal-Tibet War
World War I (Casualties)
Nepalese Civil War
|General Gaurav Shumsher JB Rana|
|Jang Bahadur Rana|
The Nepalese Army (Nepali: Nepali Sena नेपाली सेना) is the army of Nepal and a major component of the Military of Nepal. With its long history and more than half a decade of service to United Nations, NA is considered to be superior to all other security forces including the Nepalese Police Force and Armed Police Force Nepal. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enrollment is 18 years. NA used to be known as The Royal Nepalese Army (RNA).
Nepal unification campaign was a turning point in the history of the Nepali army. Since unification was not possible without a strong army, the management of the armed forces had to be exceptional. Apart from the standard Malla era temples in Kathmandu, army being organized in Gorkha, technicians and experts had to be brought in from abroad to manufacture war materials. After the Gorkhali troops captured Nuwakot, the neighbouring principality of Kathmandu (Kantipur) in the year 1744, the Gorkhali armed forces came to be known as the Royal Nepalese Army.
Their gallantry, sincerity and simplicity impressed even their enemy so much that the British East-India Company started recruiting Nepalese into their forces. Since the British had fought against then RNA, which was till that time, still colloquially known as "Army of Gorkha" or "Gorkhali" army, the British called their new soldiers "Gurkhas". The Indian army, after gaining their independence from the British, started calling them "Gorkha".
There are reports that the British Indian Army's 268th Indian Infantry Brigade during the Second World War had two Nepalese units operate as part of it. The brigade does not appear to have served outside India.
There is still some misunderstanding that the Nepali Army is a part of the British and Indian Armies. The Gurkha Rifles existing in India and Britain are part of foreign military organizations where Nepalis are recruited. The NA are rightfully the true heir of the title of "The original Army of the Gorkha".
Prior to 2006 the Nepal Army was known as the Royal Nepalese Army and was under the control of the King of Nepal. Yet following the Loktantra Andolan (People's Movement for Democracy) on May 18, 2006 a Bill was passed by the Nepalese parliament curtailing royal power, this included renaming the army.
In 2004 Nepal spent $99.2 million on its military (1.5% of its GDP). Since 2002 the RNA had been involved in the Nepali Civil War they were also used to quell the pro-democracy protesters in April 2006 Loktantra Andolan. Most of its arms are supplied by India.
The Nepal Army has 105,000 strong army and air service members protecting the sovereignty of Nepal.
Until 2006, the King of Nepal was in control of all military forces in the country. The National Army was renamed from Royal Nepalese Army to Nepalese Army after the recent national conversion from a monarchy to a republic. The position of the Supreme Commander of the Nepal Army now is the President of Nepal.
The National Defence Council
This Council used to have three members, the Prime Minister, the Defence Minister, and the Chief of the Army Staff.
Now, Nepal is officially known as Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. The declaration of republic meant that the king is consigned to the history books making the President the supreme commander of NA.
The pretana(NA) is divided into six divisions:
In addition there are 3 brigades:
- Aviation Brigade
- Parachute Brigade
- Security Brigade
The Primary role of the NA is to defend the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Nepal. Their secondary role is to provide assistance to the Civilian Government of Nepal in the maintenance of internal security. Other duties include humanitarian assistance/disaster relief operations, assisting in national development, nature conservation efforts and participation in international peacekeeping mission.
- Royal Nepal Army in Indian Sepoy Mutiny
- Royal Nepal Army in The First World War 1914-1918
- Royal Nepal Army in Waziristhan War
- Royal Nepal Army in Afghan War –1919
- Royal Nepal Army in The Second World War
- Royal Nepal Army in Hyderbad Action - 1948
Disarmament of the Khampas - 1974
In 1974, the then Royal Nepalese Army (RNA) was mobilized to disarm the Tibetan Khampas, who had been using Nepalese soil to engage in guerilla warfare against the invading Chinese forces. The Khampas operated mainly from a base secretly established at Mustang in northwest Nepal. The RNA, under immense diplomatic pressure from China and the international community, moved nine infantry units toward Mustang, and gave the Khampas an ultimatum to either disarm themselves and surrender, or face attack. The terms and conditions of their surrender were that they would be given Nepalese citizenship, land, and money, and free schooling for their children. The Khampa commander, General Wangdi, agreed to surrender but eventually fled the camp. He was later killed by RNA forces in Doti, in far western Nepal, while trying to loot a Nepal Police post. This was the first time the RNA had mobilized domestically in such large numbers. The Nepali government failed to provide any of the compensation agreed to in the surrender terms.
- United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL),
- UNOSOMII the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), UN Operational Mission Somalia II,
- UNMIH the United Nations Mission in Haiti.
- UNAMSIL - Currently, Nepal is sending an 800-man battalion to serve in the peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).
- UNMIS - The Nepalese Army has sent a protection company of 200 personnel in United Nations Mission In Sudan. The Redeployment Coordination HQ at Kassala is also manned by the Nepalese contingent. The RCHQ was intended to monitor withdrawals from the eastern sectors of the UNMIS area in accordance with the Sudan Comprehensive Peace Accord.
U.S./Nepal military relations
The U.S.-Nepali military relationship focuses on support for democratic institutions, civilian control of the military, and the professional military ethic to include respect for human rights. Both countries have had extensive contact over the years. Nepali Army units have served with distinction alongside American forces in places such as Haiti, Iraq, and Somalia.
U.S.-Nepali military engagement continues today through IMET, Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC), and various conferences and seminars. The U.S. military sends many Nepalese Army officers to America to attend military schooling such as the Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Army War College. The IMET budget for FY2001 was $220,000.
The EPIC program is an interagency program between the Department of Defense and the Department of State to increase the pool of international peacekeepers and to promote interoperability. Nepal received about $1.9 million in EPIC funding.
- Panchkhal Military Base
- Katmandu Army HQ
- Nepal Army Command and Staff College, Shivapuri
- Nepal Army School, Nagarkot
- Military Academy, Kharipati
- Nepal Army Recruit Training Center, Trishuli
- Nepal Army Jungle Warfare School, Amlekhgunj
- Nepal Army High Altitude and Mountain Warfare School, Mustang
- Nepal Army Intelligence School, Kharipati
- Nepal Army Logistics School, Chhauni
- Birendra Peace Keeping Operation Training Center, Panchkhal
- Nepal Army Para Training School, Maharajgunj
- Shree Nath Battalion - established 1762
- Shree Kali Buksh Battalion (Engineers) - established 1762
- Shree Barda Bahadur Battalion - established 1762
- Shree Sabuj Battalion - established 1762
- Shree Purano Gorakh Battalion - established 1763; Gurkha
- Shree Devidutta Battalion 1783
- Shree Naya Gorakh Battalion 1783 Gurkha
- Shree Bhairavi Dal Battalion 1785
- Shree Singhanath Battalion 1786 (commando)
- Shree Shreejung Battalion 1783
- Shree Ranabhim Battalion 1783
- Shree Naya Shree Nath Battalion 1783
- Shree Bhairavnath Battalion 1910 - (Parachute Battalion)
- Shree Ganeshdal Battalion 1846 - signals and communications
- Shree Nepal Cavalry 1849 - Household Cavalry ceremonial unit since 1952
- Shree Vajradal Company 1806
- Shree Bhagvati Prasad Company 1927
- Shree Parshwavarti Company 1936 - served as PM's Body Guard unit and disbanded 1952
- Shree Rajdal Battalion (Artillery & Air Defence)
- Shree Yuddha Bhairav Battalion (Special Force)
- Rangers Battalion (Equivalent to U.S Army Rangers)
- Shree Chandan Nath Battalion - 2061 B.S. (Infantry Army)
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2012)|
|Colt's Manufacturing Company||M16 rifle||25,000||USA||Will be standard issue assault rifle replacing INSAS & SLR. It is now a standard issue in most army units.|
|Colt's Manufacturing Company||Colt Commando||2,000||USA||Used by 10th Brigade ('Gha' Gulma, 'Nga' Gulma) Special Forces & Counter Terrorism|
|Colt's Manufacturing Company||M4 carbine||4,000||USA||Used by Military Police, Nepal Army Rangers and Nepal Army Special Forces|
|Heckler & Koch||MSG90 Military Sniper Rifle||1000||Germany||Used by Nepal Army Sniper Units, Special Forces and Nepal Army Rangers|
|Heckler & Koch||PSG1||1000||Germany||Used by Nepal Army Special Forces|
|Izhmash||AK-47||50,000||Russia||Rumored to have but used in small scale by Maoist.|
|Enfield||L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle||60,000||UK||Once the standard issue assault rifle, most of which are transferred to Armed Police Force & some to special units of Nepal Police|
|Heckler & Koch||MP5||5,000||Germany||Used by Special Force and other Special Forces Units including the Paratrooopers and the Rangers|
|Israeli Small Arms||IMI Galil||10,000||Israel||Used by Paratroopers No.10 Brigade|
|Heckler & Koch||Heckler & Koch G36||3,000||Germany||Upgrade to the G36 was contested with the M16A2 Assault Rifles for the Nepal Army. The M16A2 later became the standard issue.|
|Fabrique Nationale||M249 Light Machine Gun||5,000||Belgium||Squad / Infantry support role|
|Various||GPMG||5,000||Various||Infantry support and suppressor role by various Army Units. Some variants of the Bren light machine gun#L4 is still in use.|
|Israel Military Industries||UZI||4,000||Israel||Used by Military Police & VIP protection Units|
|Sterling Armaments Company||Sterling submachine gun||25,000||UK||Still the standard issue SMG which will be replaced by Colt Command M4 Carbine, most of it are transferred to Armed Police Force|
|Indian State Ordnance Factory Board||INSAS assault rifle||40,000||India||INSAS rifles were supplied to the Nepalese Army at a 70% subsidy price. Due to its faulty mode-switch system during the initial use in the Maoist-Insurgency, Ministry of Defence is considering to replace all of it with M-16, although the system has been repaired. INSAS will be then transferred to Armed Police Force.|
|PKT||5,000||Russia||Provided as support from India|
|Many||Bren light machine gun||2,400||UK|
|FN Herstal||FN MAG||400||Belgium|
|Norinco||WZ551#WMZ-551B APC||100||China||similar to Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé|
|Tata Motors||LPTA 1615 TC (4x4) light truck||800||India|
|GAZ||BTR-70 APC||135||USSR||8-wheeled Armored Personnel Carrier|
|Daimler||Ferret Armoured Car||40||UK|
|Ordnance Factory Board||Indian Mine Protected Vehicle/APC||240||India||based Alvis plc/BAE Systems Land Systems South Africa/Land Systems OMC Casspir on Ashok Leyland Stallion MKIII truck chassis (based on Ford Cargo)|
|Maruti Suzuki||Maruti Gypsy SUV||220||India|
|Vickers||QF 3.7 inch AA gun||45||UK|
|SPG-9 Rocket-propelled grenade system||100||Russia|
|25 mm gun (Indian Field Gun)||100||India|
|75 mm Pack Howitzer||6||UK|
|3.7 inch Mountain Howitzer||100||UK|
|Fort Halstead||105 mm artillery pack||14||UK|
|Fort Halstead||81 mm mortar||100||UK|
|160 mm M43 mortar||1,070||USSR|
The Nepalese Army currently have two types of uniform.
This dress is used primarily for parading and official duties. On August 2010 Nepal Army introduced new ceremonial uniform replacing the old one in order to make them relevant to the changing context and time. The new uniform comprise military coloured blazer and trousers, green coloured shirt, olive green tie and belt and cap. However the parade dress would include leather belt with suspension.
This dress is used by the Nepalese Army for regular operational duties.
Nepalese army uses two type of camouflage patterns:
- Nepalese 4-Color Camouflage - similar to the Japan Type I camouflage
- Paramadhipati: "Grand" "Supreme Commander-in-Chief" (President. Dr. Ram Baran Yadav)
- Chief of the Army Staff:(PRADHAN SENAPATI) "Chief General" but usually translated as "Chief of the Army Staff"
- Lieutenant General
- Major General
- Brigadier General
- Lieutenant Colonel
- Second Lieutenant
- Subedar Major
- Warrant Officer 1(Subedar)
- Warrant Officer 2(Jemadar)
- Lance Corporal
Nepalese army fights various battles on the unification campaign these battles of Nepal unification help royal Nepalese army to gain more experiences with a gift of Unified Nepal.
Battles on Defending Kingdom of Nepal
Medals and Awards
- Mahendra Mala
- Parama Nepal Pratap Baskara
- Ati Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara
- Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara
- Ojasvi Rajanya (Sovereign - A)
- Ojasvi Rajanya (Sovereign - B)
- Ojasvi Rajanya (Grand Master - A)
- Ojasvi Rajanya (Grand Master - B)
- Parama Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal - Shreepada
- Ati Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal - Shreepada
- Maha Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal Shreepada
- Haviland, Charles (2006-05-19). "Erasing the 'royal' in Nepal". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-09-23.