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Mustafa Mahmudov was an Azerbaijani political leader who was instrumental in the nation's independence moevement in the early 1900s. He served as a member of parliament for the second Russian State Duma in 1907 and was Deputy Secretary of the Azerbaijani National Council at its initiation in 1918. Mahmudov also was a member of Azerbaijan's Commission on Agriculture. He represented the Musavat political party.