Miriam Defensor Santiago
|Miriam Defensor Santiago|
|Judge of the International Criminal Court|
March 11, 2012
|Secretary of Agrarian Reform|
July 20, 1989 – January 4, 1990
|Preceded by||Philip Ella Juico|
|Succeeded by||Florencio Abad|
|Senator of the Philippines|
June 30, 2004
June 30, 1995 – June 30, 2001
June 15, 1945 |
Iloilo City, Philippines
|Political party||People's Reform Party|
|Alma mater||University of the Philippines, Visayas
University of the Philippines, Diliman
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Maryhill School of Theology
Miriam Defensor Santiago (born Miriam Palma Defensor on June 15, 1945) is a Judge-elect of the International Criminal Court and a member of the Senate of the Philippines. She is a lawyer, former trial judge, and lecturer on constitutional and international law. She served as the Commissioner of the Philippine Bureau of Immigration and Deportation in 1988 and the Secretary of the Philippines' Department of Agrarian Reform from 1989 to 1991. She is the founder and current leader of the center-right People's Reform Party formerly allied with former president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo during the 2004 elections, and is a recipient of Asian Nobel Prize, the Ramon Magsaysay Award, for government service given by the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation, and was cited "for bold and moral leadership in cleaning up a graft-ridden government agency" during her tenure as the head of the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation.
Defensor Santiago ran for President of the Philippines in 1992; she led the nationwide canvassing of votes for a few days, but was defeated by a margin of less than several hundred thousand votes. The campaign was reportedly marred by widespread election fraud, notably power blackouts after the first five days. She filed an electoral protest which was dismissed in 1995 when she ran for and won a seat in the Philippine Senate.
Miriam was widely featured in the international press because of her outspokenness, flamboyant personality. In 1997, the Australian magazine named her one of "The 100 Most Powerful Women in the World." In later years, Miriam was keynote speaker of the international anti-corruption conference in Sydney, Australia. As senator, she sponsored and secured ratification by the Philippine Senate of the UN Convention Against Corruption.
Early life and education
Born Miriam Palma Defensor on June 15, 1945 in La Paz district, Iloilo City, she grew and lived with her parents. Her father Benjamin A. Defensor was a district trial judge, and her mother Dimpna Palma Defensor, a school teacher. She is the eldest of seven children.
She graduated valedictorian of the 120 student La Paz Elementary School, and valedictorian of the Iloilo Provincial High School, also earning a medal for all-around exuberance. In high school, her parents considered her to be a child prodigy. As a freshman, she won a Spelling Bee. Also still a freshman, she topped oral examinations and was appointed by a faculty member as editor of the high school paper, a post which she held for over four years. She was high school swimming champion for the province during competitions sponsored by the Red Cross. She topped the National College Entrance Examinations for the Western Visayas region according to her resume.
In 1965, Santiago graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science, magna cum laude from the University of the Philippines Visayas. It took her only three and a half years including summer school to complete her degree. After graduation, she was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and Phi Kappa Phi sororities.
After a three-month bout with illness, Santiago attended the University of the Philippines Diliman. There, she continued to participate and won as champion in numerous oratorical, public speaking, and debate contests. She became the first female editor of a student newspaper, The Philippine Collegian and was twice made ROTC muse. Her successful classmates included former Senate President Franklin Drilon, San Juan Representative Ronaldo Zamora, and Eli Pamatong. Unlike Drilon and Zamora, who both opted to enter big law firms, Santiago chose to make her own law firm known as Miriam Defensor Santiago and Associates. She also taught Law subjects at Trinity College now known as Trinity University of Asia, and University of the Philippines as part-time job.
She earned a Bachelor of Laws degree, cum laude, from the University of the Philippines College of Law in Diliman. Santiago pursued higher learning, earned an LL.M. after only 6 months instead of 2 years and an S.J.D. after only 1 year instead of 2 years from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor with flying colors. She attended postdoctoral courses at various prestigious international universities. In 1996, she attended the Summer Program for Lawyers at Harvard Law School. In 1997, she attended the Summer Program in Law at Oxford University and has since claimed alumna status at both institutions. She wrote and published her own law and political science textbooks at her own printing press. She has also attended other prestigious international universities including Stanford University, University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
In 1986, Santiago was recognized as one of the Five Outstanding Professionals of the Philippine Junior Chamber of Commerce. In 1988, she sought and won the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Government Service for her graft-busting performance as Commissioner of Immigration and Deportation  In 1996, the Australian Women's Magazine ranked Santiago 69th among The 100 Most Powerful Women in the World
Santiago was an instructor in political science in Trinity College of Quezon City from 1971 to 1974 and concurrently Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of Justice from 1970 to 1980. She was also a member of the Board of Censors for Motion Pictures from 1977 to 1979. She served as a legal staffer of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from 1979 to 1980. She was also one of the legal aides at the Washington, D.C. office. She was finally rewarded with an appointment as a Trial Court Judge from 1983 to 1987, and became a most decorated trial judge. She also taught Law at the University of the Philippines from 1976 to 1988. From 1992 to 1995 and from 2001 to 2004, she has lectured at the University of Perpetual Help System DALTA. In 2011, after two year-long government lobbying campaign spearheaded by the Dept. of Foreign Affairs , she announced that she had won a seat in the International Criminal Court and would assume her position as one of its eighteen judges on March 2012.
Commissioner of the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation
Santiago was appointed by President Corazon Aquino as Commissioner of the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation in 1988, and is tasked by Aquino to clean this graft-ridden government agency. She served in that capacity until 1989.
Miriam rose to the challenge. She ordered lightning raids on criminal syndicates and fake passport creators. She filled the immigration detention center to bursting with foreign criminals engaged in the pedophile industry, smuggling of illegal aliens including prostitutes, import and export of illicit firearms and dangerous drugs, and even operatives of the infamous Yakuza. She also fired numerous corrupt employees during her tenure as commissioner.
Almost every week, the media were full of Santiago's exploits against criminal syndicates. At this point, she earned the resentment of politicians who are patrons and benefactors of certain syndicates; When a congressman delivered a privilege speech against her for a raid that arrested foreign pedophiles occupying a village in his district, Santiago called him, "Fungus Face", and publicly urged him to "stick his finger in the electric socket."
Secretary of Agrarian Reform
Impressed with her performance in the CID, President Aquino appointed Santiago as Secretary of Agrarian Reform in 1989. The president ordered her “to put everything in place, institute reforms and help plug loopholes in the present agrarian reform law.”
Miriam lost no time in overhauling the department’s policies. She instituted three major policies in agrarian reform. First, to concretize the basic philosophy of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL), she stressed that all doubts on the inclusion of lands in the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) should be resolved in favor of inclusion.
Second, under her term, the DAR policy was to prefer the contract-growing principle over the lease-back arrangement, particularly with respect to corporate farms or plantations. Under the lease-back arrangement, the tiller would end up as the lessor who receives rent and remains a mere laborer of multinational corporations. In contrast, the principle of land to the tillers would still be practiced under the contract-growing scheme. The contract grower would have a say on how much would be produced and in marketing the produce.
Third and most important, under her term, the DAR shifted its land acquisition thrust from the voluntary offer-to-sell (VOS) scheme to compulsory acquisition of lands to hasten the pace of the CARP.
The VOS scheme implemented during her predecessor’s term was riddled with anomalies and corruption. Miriam assumed her duties when the DAR was being rocked by the highly controversial and fraudulent Garchitorena land deal. The former agrarian reform secretary was forced to resign due to the scandal. One of Miriam’s first acts as agrarian reform secretary was to halt all land transactions under the VOS method, and order the investigation of all past and pending transactions.
Miriam sent Notices of Compulsory Acquisition to big landowners, including relatives of President Aquino, forcing them to sell some 5,000 hectares of land in northern Tarlac province.
Miriam’s boldest move as agrarian reform secretary was to ask President Aquino to inhibit herself from deliberations of the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC) on the stock distribution scheme of Hacienda Luisita. The president was the chairperson of PARC, while Santiago was its vice chairperson.
The Cojuangcos availed themselves of the CARP’s stock-transfer option scheme allowing the President’s family to distribute shares of stocks to the Cojuangco corporation instead of distributing land titles from the estate. Critics decried the scheme, saying it allowed the owners to retain control of the estate.
Miriam endorsed to Congress an alternative “people’s agrarian reform program” (Parcode) drafted by the Congress for People’s Agrarian Reform, a coalition of farmers’ groups including the militant Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas (KMP) and the conservative Federation of Free Farmers (FFF). She said the Parcode was a “superior piece of legislation” and “rational, highly logical, and consistent.” The Parcode put land retention limits to five hectares. Under the CARL, the retention limit was 11 hectares, which virtually exempted 75% of all agricultural lands from land reform. Miriam’s endorsement was hailed by farmers’ organizations.
1992 Presidential Election
After President Corazon Aquino declared her intention not to seek another term in the 1992 elections, Santiago ran for president, seeking Aquino's endorsement. She founded the People's Reform Party as her vehicle, inviting Ramon Magsaysay, Jr. to be her running mate. The party did not have any other candidates at the national level, and it endorsed only two local candidates Alfredo Lim and Lito Atienza for the position of mayor and vice mayor of Manila. Aquino decided instead to back her Secretary of National Defense Fidel V. Ramos in his bid for the presidency.
Santiago was leading the canvassing of votes for the first five days. Following a string of power outages, the tabulation concluded, and Ramos was declared President-elect. Santiago filed a protest before the electoral tribunal citing the power outages during the counting of votes as evidence of massive fraud. Her election protest was eventually dismissed. Many believed that this election was marred by fraud because of the nationwide power outages,
The public outrage over the presidential results prompted Newsweek to feature her and her rival on the cover with the question: "Was the Election Fair?" In another cover story, Philippine Free Press magazine asked: "Who's the Real President?"
Senator of the Philippines
First term (1995–2001)
Santiago ran for the Senate of the Philippines in 1995 elections, again as a candidate of her own People's Reform Party. She was elected to the senate and served as a senator from 1995 to 2001. As a Senator, Santiago became a vocal critic of the Ramos Administration. She filed the most number of bills in the Senate during her term. Santiago again ran for president in the 1998 elections and invited former Marcos crony Francisco Tatad to be her running mate. Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino candidate but lost by a landslide and Joseph Estrada won the election and became president. After losing the election, Santiago returned to the Senate.
In 2001 Santiago ran for reelection but lost.
Second term (2004–2010)
For the 2004 elections, Santiago ran again for senator, this time joining President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan (K4) coalition. The Philippine Star wrote that "Santiago’s turncoat move was a surprise to many, especially since she is associated with former President Joseph Estrada, whom she supported when he was impeached by the House of Representatives and tried by the Senate (back in 2001)." The report added that Santiago was initially considered to be Fernando Poe, Jr.'s running-mate for the 2004 Philippine presidential election but she declined, saying "she could not run in the same ticket with the likes of Legarda." Legarda is (sic) one of Estrada's leading critics during the former's impeachment trial.
However, the real reason of her switching coalition is because Estrada handpicked another movie actor to run for president, which is why she objected, and instead ran for senator under the administration’s ticket. In 2004, Miriam won her second term as senator. In late 2006, a group of her former students nominated her for Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. All candidates were requested by the Judicial and Bar Council, the nominating body, to submit an application and bio-data and undergo an interview. No one showed up but Santiago. Deeply humiliated, she threw a series of public tantrums and tried to save face by saying she would give way to the senior associate justice, because at age 61 she was "too young for the post".
She chaired the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and Energy from 2004-2008. When Manuel Villar resigned as Senate President, Santiago lost the chairmanship of the energy committee, and was demoted to the committee on economic affairs.
Third term (2010–2016)
Santiago ran for reelection in the Philippine Senate election, 2010 under the her PRP and as a guest candidate for six different political parties. She finished third among other senatorial candidates had more than 17 million votes.
In 2012, Santiago proved to be the most important personality in the Impeachemt trial of the Chief Justice Renato Corona. On the last day of the first part of the impeachment trial, she was antagonistic towards the prosecution lawyer, Vitaliano Aguirre, when Aguirre's rude and contemptuous gesture taunts to her on national TV. She, along with fellow Senators Joker Arroyo and Ferdinand Marcos, Jr., were the only three persons to vote to acquit the chief magistrate.
Also in 2012, Santiago sponsored two controversial bills: Sin Tax Reform Act of 2012 (with Sen. Franklin Drilon) and the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012 (with Sen. Pia Cayetano). In early 2013, Santiago began a feud with Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile when the latter was alleged to give a PhP 1 million to his allied senators as Christmas bonus. Sen. Antonio Trillanes took her side on the issue.
Election to the International Criminal Court
On December 12, 2011, Senator Santiago was elected to a nine-year tenure as judge of the International Criminal Court (ICC). Although she is currently listed as a judge by the ICC, she has yet to take her oath and assume her office there. Santiago was absent during the March 9, 2012, oath-taking of new judges due to medical reasons, citing her elevated blood pressure and bone marrow aplasia, but later went on to reveal that she had written the president of the ICC to request that she be the last of the six newly elected judges to take her post to allow her more time to fulfill her responsibilities as a senator.
Miriam Defensor is married to Narciso Santiago. They have 2 adopted daughters and 2 biological sons.
- http://www.newsflash.org/2003/05/hl/hl019623.htm MIRIAM AS 12TH, COMPLETES GMA'S K-9 SENATORIAL SLATE January 9, 2004
- "Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago - Senate of the Philippines". Senate.gov.ph. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Official Biography at http://miriam.com.ph/resume1.html last accessed May 14, 2007.
- "Presidential Profiles: Miriam Defensor Santiago." Probe Team Documentaries. GMA-7. March–April 1998.
- Official Publications List, Miriam Santiago Book Store, 2002.
- Santiago Mir.html Biography of Miriam Defensor Santiago, The Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation. Retrieved December 7, 2006.
- http:// wisdom.psinet.au/~lani/100mpw.html
- Actual university tours by "Dr." Miriam Defensor Santiago from 2001 to 2004.
- "Sen. Santiago wins seat in International Criminal Court". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2011-12-13.
- "Manila Journal; Battling the 'Culture of Corruption' Day by Day - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1988-05-26. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- "Manila Journal; Battling the 'Culture of Corruption' Day by Day - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1988-05-26. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "A Sharp Tongue Propels A Philippine Candidate - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1992-05-10. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "A Sharp Tongue Propels A Philippine Candidate". The New York Times. May 10, 1992.
- "Miriam Defensor-Santiago | 2010 Philippine Election". 2010.pinoyvote.info. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Shenon, Philip (1992-05-14). "Front-Runners Are Nip and Tuck As Philippine Returns Trickle In - NYTimes.com". Philippines: Select.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "Power Failures Slow Philippine Vote Count - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1992-05-24. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- , Philippine Senate Official Website.
- , Philippine Senate Official Website.
- Kimberly Jane T. Tan Miriam seeks reelection under 6 parties, endorses no president. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- Vernadette Joven.9 newly elected senators proclaimed. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "Delivering on the promise of a fair, effective and independent Court > Election of ICC and ASP Officials > Judges". Coalition for the International Criminal Court. Coalition for the International Criminal Court. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "PRESS STATEMENT ON SENATOR SANTIAGO'S ELECTION AS ICC JUDGE". Senate Press Releases. Senate of the Philippines. December 13, 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Judge Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO (Philippines)". ICC Judges - Biographical Notes. International Criminal Court. Retrieved 6 June 2013. "Judge as of 11 March 2012, for a term of nine years. Elected from the Group of Asian States, list B."
- Guttierez, Natashya (Posted on 06/28/2012 2:24 PM | Updated 06/28/2012 5:26 PM). "Miriam: No available ICC seat for me in near future". Rappler. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- Esmaquel II, Paterno (Posted on 03/10/2012 9:50 AM | Updated 03/10/2012 1:53 PM). "Miriam would have been ICC judge by now". Rappler. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- Balitang Marino: Miriam Santiago's son shot, dies in hospital
- Santiago, Miriam D. (1991). Inventing Myself. Narsan Publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (1991). How to Fight Graft. Movement for Responsible Public Service.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (1993). How to Fight Election Fraud. Narsan Publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (1993). Cutting Edge: The Politics of Reform in the Philippines. Narsan Publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (1994). The Miriam Defensor Santiago Dictionary. Narsan publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (2002). Politics and Governance. Central Law Book Publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (2002). International Relations. Central Law Book Publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (2003). History of Philosophy. Central Professional Books, Inc.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (2003). Political Philosophy: Theory and Current Issues in Politics. Central Professional Books, Inc.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (2003). Philosophy of Religion: Western and Eastern Religions. Central Professional Books, Inc.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (1997). Where Angels Fear to Tread: Politics and Religion. Narsan Publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (1997). At the Turn of the Century: National Policy Issues in the Philippines. Narsan Publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (2002). Constitutional Law Annotated. Central Law Book Publishing.
- Santiago, Miriam D. (1999). International Law, with Philippine Cases and Materials, and ASEAN Instruments. Central Professional Books.
- Detailed Biography from the Ramon Magsaysay Foundation
- Biography from the Senate of the Philippines
- Miriam Defensor Santiago's résumé