Merrill Swain is a professor emerita of second-language education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. She developed the output hypothesis, a theory of second-language acquisition which states that learners cannot reach full grammatical competence in a language from input processing alone, but must also produce spoken language output. Swain is also known for her work with Michael Canale on communicative competence. Swain was the president of the American Association for Applied Linguistics in 1998. She received her PhD at the University of California.
- "Merrill Swain". Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Ellis, Rod (2008). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-0-19-442257-4.
- Brown, H. Douglas (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. pp. 219–220. ISBN 0-13-199128-0.
- "Past Presidents". American Association of Applied Linguistics. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
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