|Launch date||November 2013|
|Launch vehicle||Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle|
|Launch site||Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, India|
|Mission duration||300 Earth days|
The Mangalyaan (Devnagari:मंगलयान) (Hindi: Mars-craft) mission is a planned Mars orbiter to be launched in November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The mission is a "technology demonstrator" project aiming to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission.
The government of India approved the project on 3 August 2012, after the Indian Space Research Organisation completed 125 crore (US$23 million) of required studies for the Mangalyaan orbiter. The total project cost may be up to 454 crore (US$83 million). The space agency is looking at a November 2013 launch when Mars is closest to Earth, which happens every 26 months. In the near future, there are three "windows of opportunity": in late 2013, 2016 and 2018, and Indian scientists are aiming to be ready for the 2013 opportunity. The agency considered using ion-thrusters, liquid engines or nuclear power to propel the bus further towards Mars, and selected a liquid fuel engine. If successful, ISRO would become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after Roscosmos, NASA, and ESA.
The main objective of this first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission, comprising the following major tasks:
- Orbit maneuvers to transfer the probe from Earth-centered orbit to heliocentric trajectory and final capture into Martian orbit.
- Development of force models and algorithms for orbit and attitude computations and analyses.
- Navigation in all phases.
- Maintain the probe in all phases of the mission meeting power, communications, thermal and payload operation requirements.
- Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations.
The space agency would use its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle rocket. The November 2013 launch will place Mangalyaan into Earth orbit, then six engine firings will raise that orbit to one with an apogee of 215,000 km and a perigee of 600 km. A final firing will send Mangalyaan onto an interplanetary trajectory. Mars orbit insertion is planned for September 2014 and would allow the spacecraft to enter a highly elliptical orbit of 500 km x 80,000 km around Mars.
- Methane Sensor For Mars (MSM)
- Mars Color Camera (MCC)
- Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer (MENCA)
- TIR Spectrometer (TIS)
- Lyman-Alpha Photometer (LAP)
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