|Developer(s)||The MakeHuman team.|
|Stable release||1.0 alpha7 / November 10, 2012|
|Written in||Python, C|
|Operating system||Windows, Linux, Mac OS X|
|Type||3D computer graphics|
Makehuman™ is a free, open source software designed for the rapid prototyping of photorealistic human (and humanoid) characters. It is developed by a community of programmers, artists, academics and enthusiasts interested in 3D computer models of human beings.
MakeHuman™ is used to create a 3D mesh with optimized topology representing human beings with a user-controlled mix of characteristics including race, sex, size, muscularity and other features. The models thus created are integrated into one of two typical pipelines or workflows.
In the first one, MakeHuman™ is integrated in a professional pipeline, where the T-posed mesh is exported into a full-featured 3D CGI system such as Blender, Maya, XSI, C4D, Zbrush etc.. in order to be included in complex scenes and renderings, or used for games.
In the second pipeline the mesh is posed and clothed directly in MakeHuman™, then rendered with an external engine, to create 2D art or a quick demo reel of a character.
The modeling process begins with an androgynous human form. Unique 3D models are created by manipulating controls that allow for the blending of different biometric attributes, some at the macro level, others at the fine detail level for specific facial or body features.
Macro parameters deal with overall human characteristics like gender, age, height, tone, ethnicity and weight. Detail parameters allow for the character to be further refined by focusing on the low level details of things like eye shape, and finger length.
Other elements, like clothes, hair, skin tones, expressions, poses, etc. are selected from a visual library. The resulting character model can be saved or exported in several formats (wavefront obj, stl, mhx, etc.) and different topologies (optimized for subdivision, games, male or female, etc.).
MakeHuman™ is developed mainly in Python and OpenGL in order to be easily ported to different operating systems. Currently, it is supported on Windows, Linux and OS X. It includes a large database of morphing targets, modeled by artists or using laser scans.
Beginning with 1.0 alpha 8 version, the GUI is Qt based, and the software written in python only, with an architecture fully realized with plugins.
MakeHuman is fully Open Source. The character output of MakeHuman is released under CC0, so it can be freely used even in commercial projects. The database and the code are released under the GNU Affero General Public License (GNU AGPL).
The ancestor of MakeHuman was MakeHead, a python script for Blender, written by Manuel Bastioni, artist and coder, in 1999. A year later, he created a team of passionate people and release the first version of MakeHuman for Blender. The project evolved and, in 2003 it was officially recognized by the Blender Foundation and hosted on http://projects.blender.org. In 2004, at version 1.8, the development stopped because it was difficult to write a Python script so big using only Blender API.
In 2005, MH was moved outside Blender, hosted on SourceForge and rewritten from scratch in C.
At this point, version counting restarted from zero. During successive years, the software gradually transitioned from C to C++. While performant, it was too complex to develop and maintain. Hence, in 2009 the team decided to go back to the Python language (with a small C core) and to release it as MH 1.0 pre-alpha. Development continued at a pace of 2 releases per year. In 2012, MH 1.0 alpha 7 was released.
A list of papers where MakeHuman software is used for scientific purposes:
- Ideas and methods for modeling 3D human figures: the principal algorithms used by MakeHuman and their implementation in a new approach to parametric modeling. M. Bastioni, S. Re, S. Misra. Proceedings of the 1st Bangalore Annual Compute Conference, Compute 2008, 2008
- Automatic, Body Measurements Based Generation of Individual Avatars Using Highly Adjustable Linear Transformation A. Volz, R. Blum, S. Häberling, K. Khakzar. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 4561, 2007, pp 453–459
- Estimation of human orientation in images captured with a range camera. S. Piérard, A. Leroy, J.F. Hansen, M. Van Droogenbroeck. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (ACIVS), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6915, pages 519-530, Springer, 2011 (http://hdl.handle.net/2268/91403)
- Automatic Generation of Personalized Human Models based on Body Measurements. D. Van Deun, V. Verhaert, K. Buys, B. Haexand, J. Vander Sloten
- The use of a generic human model to personalize bed design. V. Verhaert, H. Druyts, D. Van Deun, D. Berckmans, J. Verbraecken, M. Vandekerckhove, J. Vander Sloten
- On-line Generation of Customized Human Models based on Camera Measurements. K. Buys, D. Van Deun, T. De Laet, H. Bruyninckx
- Simulation of millimeter-wave body images and its application to biometric recognition. M. Moreno-Moreno ; J. Fierrez ; R. Vera-Rodriguez ; J. Parron
- Automatically Generating Virtual Humans using Evolutionary Algorithms. A. Albin-Clark, T. Howard. EG UK Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics (2009) Wen Tang, John Collomosse (Editors)
- A technique for building databases of annotated and realistic human silhouettes based on an avatar. S.Piérard, Marc Van Droogenbroeck (http://hdl.handle.net/2268/30552)
- Gait asymmetry analysis based on 3D volume reconstruction. E. Auvinetab, F. Multonb, J. Meuniera. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. Vol. 13, Supplement 1, 2010, pages 19–20
- Efficient material matrix generation for FDTD analyses using OpenGL Wiktor, M. Radioelektronika (RADIOELEKTRONIKA), 2011 21st
- The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity and Simulator Sickness in Virtual Reality Applications. Kartiko, I. Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization, 2009. CGIV '09.
- Modelagem de Humanóide e Simulação da Respiração para Auxiliar a Conscientização de Dependentes Químicos em Relação a sua Dependência. H. Martucci Neto, M. Luci Silva, A. France Frerè. Núcleo de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (NPT), Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes (UMC), Brasil
- A data-driven 3D vision feedback system for bilateral rehabilitation application. Xiang Kui
- Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 2012 International
- Human Activity Modeling and Simulation with High Biofidelity. Z. Cheng, S. Mosher, J. Smith, I. Davenport, J. Camp, D. Lochtefeld The Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference, 2012
- High Quality Flexible H-Anim Hands for Sign Language Visualisation. D. E. van Wyk, J. Connan
- Developing a Linguistically Motivated Avatar for Irish Sign Language Visualisation. I. Murtagh. Institute of Technology Blanchardstown Dublin, Ireland
- Two adult human voxel phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces. V. F. Cassola, R. Kramer, V.J. M. Lima, H. J. Khoury. Revista Brasileira de Física Médica.2010;4(1):93-7
- Analysis of human backscattering in buildings for through-wall radar applications. M. Thiel.
- Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2009. APSURSI '09. IEEE
- Multimodal signature modeling of humans. J. Michael Cathcart, B. Kocher, K. Prussing, S. Lane, A. Thomas. Proc. SPIE 7687, Active and Passive Signatures, 76870D (May 5, 2010)
- Prosthesis-user-in-the-loop: User-centered design parameters and visual simulation. C. O. Wojtusch, J. Beckerle P., Wolff K. Vogt, J. von Stryk O. Rinderknecht, S. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE
- The development, preliminary validation and clinical utility of a shoe model to quantify foot and footwear kinematics in 3-D. EJ Pratt, ML Reeves, JM van der Meulen, BW Heller- Gait & Posture, 2012 - Elsevier
- Wii Your Health: A Low-Cost Wireless System for Home Rehabilitation after Stroke using Wii Remotes with its Expansions and Blender E. Tsekleves, D. Skordoulis, I. Paraskevopoulos. Biomedical, 2011
- FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy. V. F. Cassola, V. J. de Melo Lima, R. Kramer. Physics in medicine, 2009
- A numeric model to simulate solar individual ultraviolet exposure. D. Vernez, A. Milon, L. Francioli Jean-Luc Bulliard, L. Vuilleumier, L. Moccozet. Photochemistry and Photobiology Vol. 87, Issue 3, pages 721–728, May/June 2011
- Parametric representation of human breast shapes. G Gallo, GC Guarnera, F Milanese, D. Modica, G. Catanuto, F. Pane. DOI:10.1109/MEMEA.2009.5167948. In proceeding of: Medical Measurements and Applications, 2009. MeMeA 2009. IEEE International Workshop
- Development of the competency-based objective resident education using virtual patients system. T. Sawyer, A. Stein, H. Olson, C.B. Mahnke. Medical Education Development, 2011
- Forensic-Case Analysis: From 3D Imaging to Interactive Visualization. M. Urschler, A. Bornik, E. Scheurer, K Yen, H. Bischof, D. Schmalstieg. Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, Vol.32, Issue: 4, Pages 79–87, July-Aug. 2012
- Estimation of human orientation based on silhouettes and machine learning principles. S Piérard, M Van Droogenbroeck. In International conference on pattern recognition applications and methods (ICPRAM), Vol. 2, pages 51–60, Vilamoura, Portugal, February 2012 (http://hdl.handle.net/2268/101285)
- Improving person detection using synthetic training data. J. Yu, D. Farin, C. Krüger, B. Schiele. Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 17th International Conference on Image Processing. Sept. 2010, Hong Kong
- A Survey of Visuo-Haptic Simulation in Surgical Training. F.G. Hamza-Lup, C.M. Bogdan, D.M. Popovici, O.D. Costea. eL&mL 2011 : The Third International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning
- Blender for Robotics: integration into the Leuven paradigm for robot task specification and human motion estimation. K Buys, T De Laet, R Smits, H Bruyninckx. Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 6472, pp 15–25, 2010
- Gridification of facial feature vertices extraction from 3D head. A. Othman, H. Abbes, M. Jemni
- Free viewpoint virtual try-on with commodity depth cameras. S. Hauswiesner, M. Straka, G. Reitmayr. Proceeding VRCAI '11 Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry. Pages 23–30
- A First Approach to Generate Hybrid Animations for Maintenance Tasks in IPSZ. U. Schmuntzsch - ICCM 2012 Proceedings
- Design of a GUI for the facial expressions creation in the 3D software "Make Human"-Demo. U. B. Ceipidor, C. M. Medaglia, E. Passacantilli, S. Fabri
- Numerical and experimental modeling of airflow and heat transfer of a human body. C. Croitoru, I. Nastase, A. Iatan, V. Iordache, A. Meslem. 2011
- Fördjupning inom karaktärsanimation: Realistisk animation” Rytmisk sportgymnastik”. F. Eriksson - 2007
- Procedural modeling facilities for hierarchical object generation. C. Morkel, S. Bangay. Proceeding AFRIGRAPH '06 Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Computer graphics, virtual reality, visualisation and interaction in Africa. Pages 145 - 154, 2006
- Reconocimiento biométrico basado en imàgenes simuladas en la banda de ondas milimétricas, MM. Moreno, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 2012
- Towards a Linguistically Motivated Irish Sign Language Conversational Avatar. I. Murtagh - ITB Journal
- Virtual environments to cope with anxiety situations: Two case-studies. A.P. Claudio, M.B. Carmo, T. Pinheiro, J. Lima, F. Esteves, Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2012 7th Iberian Conference, pages 1–4, 20–23 June 2012
- In search for your own virtual individual. L. Moccozet, A. Garcia-Rojas, F. Vexo, D. Thalmann, N. Thalmann. Semantic Multimedia. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 4306, 2006, pp 26–40
- A demo of a facial UI design approach for digital artists. P. Bastos, X. Alvarez Blanco, V. Orvalho. Proceedings of the 2012 ACM
- Interactive virtual try-on clothing design systems. Y. Meng, P.Y. Mok, X. Jin. Computer-Aided Design, 2010
- Articulated 3D human model and its animation for testing and learning algorithms of multi-camera systems. O. Mazaný - 2007
- High resolution passive facial performance capture. D. Bradley, W. Heidrich, T. Popa, A. Sheffer. Journal ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) - Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Vol. 29, Article No. 41 Issue 4, July 2010
- Upper body pose estimation towards the translation of South African sign language. I. Achmed, J. Connan - University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, 2010
- Utilization of Fuzzy Rules in Computer Character Animation. P. Szczuko, B. Kostek. Multimedia Services in Intelligent …, 2010
- Humanos Virtuais na Plataforma IViHumans–a Odisseia da Integraçao de Ferramentas. R. Abreu, A.P. Cláudio, M.B. Carmo - Actas do 15o Encontro Português …, 2007
- H-animator: a visual tool for modeling, reuse and sharing of X3D humanoid animations. F. Buttussi, L. Chittaro, D. Nadalutti - Web3D, 2006
- Realidade Virtual e Videogametria no Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Assistiva: um sistema para análise de marcha-segmento mão braço. L. Ramos, D. Côrrea, A. Balbinot. XXIII Salão de Iniciação Científica 03 - 06 de outubro de 2011
- Using Synthetic Data for Planning, Development and Evaluation of Shape-from-Silhouette Based Human Motion Capture Methods. R. Bakken- Advances in Visual Computing, 2012. Springer
- 3D information is valuable for the detection of humans in video streams. S. Piérard, A. Lejeune, M. Van Droogenbroeck. 2010 (http://hdl.handle.net/2268/78843)
- Virtual forensic anthropology: Novel applications of anthropometry and technology in a child death case. S.L. Davy-Jow, D. Lees, S. Russell. Forensic Science International, 2012
- ACL Rehabilitation Enhanced by 3D Modeling Software. M. Krótkiewicz, K. Wojtkiewicz, R. Kardas. Information Technologies in Biomedicine. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing Vol. 69, pp 439–446, 2010
- A novel template‐based automatic rigging algorithm for articulated‐character animation. N. Pantuwong, M. Sugimoto. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 23: 125–141, 2012
- An Artificial Mirror Neuron System for Executing and Recognizing Transitive Actions. E. Lloyd
- Parametric and distributed computer aided design (CAD) functionality integration into Blender 3D modelling and animation platform. P. Butkus, A. Noreika, J. Jaronis, J. Ingelevičius
- Ultrawideband multi-static scattering analysis of human movement within buildings for the purpose of stand-off detection and localization. M. Thiel, K. Sarabandi. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 59, Issue: 4, Pages 1261- 1268, 2011
- Rocco Palumbo, Bruno Laeng & Luca Tommasi (2013): Genderspecific aftereffects following adaptation to silhouettes of human bodies, Visual Cognition, DOI:10.1080/13506285.2012.753970
- Penis size interacts with body shape and height to inﬂuence male attractiveness. Brian S. Mautz, Bob B. M. Wong, Richard A. Peters, and Michael D. Jennions, University of Georgia, Athens, 2013
See also↑Jump back a section
- "The MakeHuman™ Application". Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- See "Related Papers" section.
- T-pose can be admired in the famous vitruvian man, it is characterized by arms perpendicular to the body. It is the starting point of the realization of animations
- Still online, but stopped in 2004: http://projects.blender.org/projects/makeh/