The Lorentz spaces are denoted by Lp,q. Like the Lp spaces, they are characterized by a norm (technically a quasinorm) that encodes information about the "size" of a function, just as the Lp norm does. The two basic qualitative notions of "size" of a function are: how tall is graph of the function, and how spread out is it. The Lorentz norms provide tighter control over both qualities than the Lp norms, by exponentially rescaling the measure in both the range (the p) and the domain (the q). The Lorentz norms, like the Lp norms, are invariant under arbitrary rearrangements of the values of a function.
where 0 < p < ∞ and 0 < q ≤ ∞. Thus, when q < ∞,
and when q = ∞,
It is also conventional to set L∞,∞(X,μ) = L∞(X,μ).
The quasinorm is invariant under rearranging the values of the function ƒ, essentially by definition. In particular, given a complex-valued measurable function ƒ defined on a measure space, (X, μ), its decreasing rearrangement function, can be defined as
where dƒ is the so-called distribution function of ƒ, given by
Here, for notational convenience, is defined to be ∞.
Given these definitions, for p, q ∈ (0, ∞), the Lorentz norms are given by
The Lorentz spaces are genuinely generalisations of the Lp spaces in the sense that for any p, Lp,p = Lp, which follows from Cavalieri's principle. Further, Lp,∞ coincides with weak Lp. They are quasi-Banach spaces (that is quasi-normed spaces which are also complete) and are normable for p ∈ (1, ∞), q ∈ [1, ∞]. Lp,q is a subspace of Lp,r whenever q < r.
- G. Lorentz, "Some new function spaces", Annals of Mathematics 51 (1950), pp. 37-55.
- G. Lorentz, "On the theory of spaces Λ", Pacific Journal of Mathematics 1 (1951), pp. 411-429.
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