|Llanishen reservoir (semi-drained)|
|Location||Llanishen, Cardiff, Wales|
|Basin countries||United Kingdom|
|Surface area||23.8 ha (59 acres)|
|Max. depth||9 m (30 ft)|
|Water volume||1,440,909 m3 (50,885,200 cu ft)|
|Surface elevation||45 m (148 ft)|
|Frozen||Last frozen during Winter 09/10|
Llanishen Reservoir (Welsh: Cronfa Ddŵr Llanisien) is a Victorian reservoir in North Cardiff in South Wales. The reservoir is one of the reservoirs constructed as part of the Taff Fawr scheme for supplying water to Cardiff and was completed in 1886. It forms part of the Nant Fawr Corridor from the top of Roath Park to the countryside beyond Cyncoed.
The reservoir was used for water supply until the mid-1970s when it became redundant. It was then used for leisure activities and for 'topping up' the adjacent Lisvane Reservoir until it was drained completely. Its current owners, Western Power Distribution (WPD), propose to redevelop the reservoir site, but there are objections from national governing bodies, the County Council, local residents and both local and national politicians.
In 1881, a report was commissioned on water resources within a reasonable distance of Cardiff. The report concluded that the Taff Fawr scheme would fulfil the town's requirements at the least cost and it was decided to create Llanishen Reservoir. Construction of the reservoir started in 1882 by the engineer James Simpson for the Cardiff Waterworks Company and was completed in 1886.
The reservoir is retained by an earth-filled embankment with a clay core some 10 metres (33 ft) high and about 1,173 metres (3,848 ft) long. The external embankment face is grassed whilst the internal face has stone pitching over the upper part and concrete over the lower part. It has a maximum surface area of water of 23.8 hectares (59 acres) and a capacity of 1,440,909 cubic metres (50,885,200 cu ft).
The reservoir is underlain by the St Maughan's Formation of the Lower Devonian age.Glacial till deposits of the Devonian age form part of the northern shore of the reservoir. The reservoir may be on the northern limb of the Cowbridge anticline.
The reservoir was transferred to Welsh Water in 1973 when the Welsh Water Authority was formed, and it supplied water until the mid-1970s. In 1996 Welsh Water's holding company was renamed as Hyder plc and the group acquired South Wales Electricity plc. After Hyder's share price collapsed in 1999 and 2000, the Hyder Group was sold to WPD on terms recommended by the Hyder Board after a competitive and hostile takeover battle. WPD is the American-owned electricity distribution network operator for South West England and South and West Wales.
Welsh Assembly members were concerned that the takeover would mean jobs being transferred to Bristol and Cheshire, and at its effect "on consumers' interests, on the environment, and on the wider economy".
WPD acquired the reservoir from Welsh Water in 2001 when Welsh Water was acquired by the not-for-profit organisation Glas Cymru: the reservoir was sold to a WPD subsidiary, Hyder Industrial Group Ltd, which was later renamed Western Power Distribution Investments Ltd.
The reservoir, which forms part of the Nant Fawr corridor, has been redundant since the 1970s and has only been used for leisure purposes and for 'topping up' the adjacent Lisvane Reservoir.
The reservoir is listed as a Site of Nature Conservation Interest (SNCI) as it has pondweed and stonewort, and common toads breed there. The grassland and scrub surrounding the reservoir is also an SNCI due to the grass snakes and slow-worms there.
The banks of the reservoir are listed as a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) due to the diversity of waxcap fungi discovered growing on them. WPD appealed against this listing stating the Countryside Council for Wales's (CCW) decision was 'premature, arbirtrary and unfair', but in January 2007 a High Court Judge upheld the SSSI designation and said it was 'an important site'.
Until Spring 2010, Cardiff Sailing Centre operated at the reservoir offering dinghy sailing, windsurfing, powerboating and canoeing courses. The centre, which is owned and managed by Cardiff County Council had been running at the reservoir for 30 years, though had to relocate to Cardiff Bay to continue operating due to the drain-down.
The Centre has gained national recognition as both a 'grass-roots' training centre through the RYA's OnBoard scheme and as a first class race training centre & club. The Centre has also produced National & International class sailors over the years.
The reservoir was also once popular with anglers (through the Cardiff Fly Fishing Club), picnickers, birdwatchers and walkers. Fishing at the reservoir stopped in 1998 and many of the other activities have been curtailed since 2004 due to the security fence that was constructed around the banks of the reservoir and (less securely) to the site boundary.
Many people still walk between the 'inner' and 'outer' fences, due to a number of natural and man-made gaps in the outer fence and the natural hedges. Although the site is monitored, only some of the 'gaps' are resecured.
WPD have proposed redevelopment since 2002. The latest proposal is for 300 new homes, surrounding a much reduced water area, and a connected 'wetland area', as well as a new sailing club and wildlife and education centre. This proposal was recommended by the Planning Inspector, but rejected by the Environment Minister. WPD requested a judicial review of the decision and the minister withdrew her defence after considering WPD's submission. The Court referred the decision back to the minister and a decision is awaited.
In March 2010, work started to drain the legal limit of 3 metres (9.8 ft) of water from the reservoir into the nearby Nant Fawr stream. WPD say that the drain-down is required as a result of a statutory inspection carried out by WS Atkins PLC. But the Environment Agency have disagreed. The drainage is opposed by opponents of the redevelopment, who claim that the reservoir will take 8 years to refill if totally emptied.
The public enquiry considered the requirement for drain-down and the ecological effects in detail. On the drain-down the Planning Inspector concluded that opponents' suspicions had been "fully rebutted". And after considering a lot of evidence the Inspector concluded that CCW were content for development to proceed and that "significant ecological benefits would result from the development".
In May 2010, WPD applied to the Environment Agency for a discharge licence in order to completely drain the reservoir, which was granted in July 2010. The issue was taken to UK Parliament by Jonathan Evans where he stated that an independent report by the Halcrow Group (advising for the Environment Agency) explained that draining the reservoir could create 'new risks to reservoir safety'. Evans' predecessor, Julie Morgan, had previously taken the issue of saving the reservoir site to parliament, and had garnered support from politicians such as Peter Hain (the Welsh Secretary) and Ed Miliband (later leader of the Labour Party), who visited the site during the May 2010 general election campaign, commenting on the site's tranquillity.
In March 2011, WPD applied to Cardiff County Council for planning permission for a miniroundabout on Lisvane Road and listed building consent to alter the structure of the reservoir. Both of these were called in by the Welsh Gevernment. During the appeal a number of changes to the original appeal were submitted by WPD and accepted by all parties. The appeal was heard during the Summer of 2011.
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