Limestone Township, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania
|— Township —|
|• Total||34.2 sq mi (88.5 km2)|
|• Land||34.1 sq mi (88.3 km2)|
|• Water||0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)|
|Elevation||1,493 ft (455 m)|
|• Density||62.7/sq mi (24.2/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1216754|
Limestone Township is a township in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The population was 2,136 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Williamsport, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Limestone Township was established on December 4, 1824 by a decree of the Pennsylvania General Assembly. It was formed from parts of Nippenose and Wayne Townships. Limestone Township was originally known as Adams Township in honor of United States President John Adams until April 14, 1835 when the name as changed to what was deemed to be a more appropriate title.
The first European settlers in the Limestone Township area arrived as early as 1789. The early settlers thought that the land was barren because the base of valley was largely free of trees. It was covered by dense thickets of thorny bushes. At first the land sold for as little as fifty cents an acre. After the initial settlers cleared the shrubbery and planted wheat, the land was found to be quite fertile and the price of the land rose dramatically to $5.00 per acre and by the 1890s the land was selling for as much as $100.00 an acre. Later settlers to Limestone Township established the communities of Collomsville, Oriole and Oval. These small towns were the locations of small taverns, general stores and sawmills.
Much of the farmland in the southeastern portion of Limestone Township was purchased by the Williamsport Water Authority in the early 1900s as part of its watershed. Visitors to the "water company" lands can see the stone remains of the early settlers homesteads spread throughout the watershed.
The water authority built a multi-million dollar water filtration plant in the 1990s in Mosquitio Valley. With the construction of this plant the lands of the water authority were opened as a nature preserve to the general public. All visitors are required to sign in at the offices at the filtration plant on the end of Mosquito Valley Road in Armstrong Township. The watershed is a nature preserve. The following is list of prohibited activities in the watershed: No dogs, hunting, fishing, littering, artifact hunting, motorized vehicles, horseback riding, camping, fires, and swimming. All visitors are requested to park their vehicles in the designated parking areas. The nature preserve is closed during certain hunting seasons when it is open to hunters who have acquired special permits issued by the Williamsport Municipal Water Authority.
Limestone Township is bordered by Washington Township to the south and east, Armstrong Township to the east, Bastress and Nippenose Townships to the north, and Clinton County to the west.As the crow flies, Lycoming County is about 130 miles (209 km) northwest of Philadelphia and 165 miles (266 km) east-northeast of Pittsburgh.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 34.2 square miles (88.5 km²).34.1 square miles (88.3 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (0.23%) is water. Limestone Township is in the southwestern corner of Lycoming County.
The region includes anticlinal karst Nippenose Valley part of the northernmost fold sequence of the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province. Nippenose Valley is uniquely bowl-shaped and consists of a doubly plunging anticline. According to a research paper from the University of Akron, The center has been eroded, exposing carbonate rocks in the valley. There is an average total of about 470 meters of Lower to Middle Ordovician limestone and dolomite underlying the valley. The Reedsville Shale is stratigraphically above them, and overlain by the ridge forming Bald Eagle Sandstone. The valley has been intensely karstified, as evidenced by the numerous sinkholes, springs, caves, and disappearing streams.
Within a number of caves in this valley a new species of fish, a type of troglomorphic sculpin, was identified in 2003 by Luis Espinasa, an associate professor of biology at Marist College.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,136 people, 689 households, and 580 families residing in the township. The population density was 62.7 people per square mile (24.2/km²). There were 732 housing units at an average density of 21.5/sq mi (8.3/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 98.78% White, 0.05% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.42% from other races, and 0.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population.
There were 689 households out of which 44.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.5% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 15.8% were non-families. 13.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.10 and the average family size was 3.41.
In the township the population was spread out with 32.0% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 109.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.1 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $41,375, and the median income for a family was $44,219. Males had a median income of $31,543 versus $21,250 for females. The per capita income for the township was $15,180. About 5.7% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.0% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.
For histories of the other townships in Lycoming County see
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Meginness, John Franklin (1892). http://www.usgennet.org/usa/pa/county/lycoming/history/Chapter-34.html
|chapterurl=missing title (help). History of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania: including its aboriginal history; the colonial and revolutionary periods; early settlement and subsequent growth; organization and civil administration; the legal and medical professions; internal improvement; past and present history of Williamsport; manufacturing and lumber interests; religious, educational, and social development; geology and agriculture; military record; sketches of boroughs, townships, and villages; portraits and biographies of pioneers and representative citizens, etc. etc. (1st Edition ed.). Chicago, IL: Brown, Runk & Co. ISBN 0-7884-0428-8. Retrieved 2006-02-18. "(Note: ISBN refers to Heritage Books July 1996 reprint. URL is to a scan of the 1892 version with some OCR typos)."
- "Williamsport Municipal Water Authority Visitor Information". WMWA-WSA Williamsport Municipal Water Authority-Williamsport Sanitation Authority. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Research, Geographic Information Division. "2007 General Highway Map Lycoming County Pennsylvania" (Map). 1:65,000. ftp://ftp.dot.state.pa.us/public/pdf/BPR_pdf_files/Maps/GHS/Roadnames/lycoming_GHSN.PDF. Retrieved 2009-12-24.
- Ulmer, Jennifer L. (1999). "Interbasin Groundwater Flow Between Sugar Valley and Nippenose Valley: Two Karst Systems in Central Pennsylvania". The University of Akron. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- Long, Eric (2008-01-26). "A new species". Williamsport Sun-Gazette. Retrieved 2009-12-22.