Landing Craft Mechanized
The Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) or Landing Craft Mechanical was a landing craft designed for carrying vehicles. They came to prominence during the Second World War when they were used to land troops or tanks during Allied amphibious assaults.
There was no single design of LCM used, unlike the Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Landing Craft Assault (LCA) landing craft made by the US and UK respectively. There were several different designs built by the UK and US and by different manufacturers.
The British Motor Landing Craft was conceived and tested in the 1920s and was used from 1924 in exercises. It was the first purpose built tank landing craft. It was the progenitor of all subsequent LCM designs.
The Landing Craft Mechanical Mark I was an early British model, it was able to be slung under the davits of a liner or on a cargo ship boom with the result that it was limited to a 16 ton tank.
- Displacement: 35 tonnes
- Length : 13.6 m
- Width : 4.27 m
- Draught : 1.22 m
- Machinery : two Chrysler 100 hp petrol engines
- Speed : 7 knots
- Crew : 6 men
- Armament : two .303 in. Lewis guns
- capacity: one medium tank, or 26.8 tons of cargo or 60 troops
- Displacement: 29 tons
- Length: 45 ft (14 m)
- Beam: 14 ft 1 in (4.3 m)
- Draft: 13 ft (4.0 m)
- Speed: 8.5 knots (15.7 km/h)
- Armament: two .50-cal M2 Browning machine guns
- Crew: 4
- capacity; 100 troops, or one 13.5 ton tank, or 15 tons of cargo
Approximately 150 were built.
There were two designs:
Capable of carrying 120,000 lb (54,000 kg) of cargo.
The builder responsible for the LCVP. In appearance very similar to the LCVP with a 10-foot (3.0 m) wide load area at the front and a small armoured (1/4 inch steel) wheelhouse on the aft decking over the engine room. Capable of carrying a single 30-ton tank (e.g., an M4 Sherman), 60 troops, or 60,000 lb (27,000 kg) of cargo. There is a Higgins LCM-3 on display at the Battleship Cove maritime museum in Fall River, Massachusetts.
In the years 1943 and 1944, seventy-seven LCM(4)s were built. Outwardly, the LCM(4) was almost completely identical to a late model LCM(1) - the difference lay inside the pontoon. Here special bilge pumps and special ballast tanks allowed the LCM(4) to alter trim to increase stability when partially loaded.
British model of LCM
An LCM (3) extended by 6 feet (1.8 m) amidships.
- Power Plant:
- 2 Detroit 6-71 Diesel engines; 348 hp (260 kW) sustained; twin shaft; or
- 2 Detroit 8V-71 Diesel engines; 460 hp (340 kW) sustained; twin shaft
- Length: 56.2 feet (17.1 m)
- Beam: 14 feet (4.3 m)
- Displacement: 64 tons (65 metric tons) full load
- Speed: 9 kt (10.3 mph, 16.6 km/h)
- Range:130 miles (240 km) at 9 knots (17 km/h)
- Military lift: 34 tons (34.6 metric tons) or 80 troops
- Crew: 5
British model of LCM
General characteristics, LCM 8 Type
- Power Plant: 2 Detroit 12V-71 Diesel engines; 680 hp (510 kW) sustained; twin shafts
- Length: 73.7 feet (22.5 m)
- Beam: 21 feet (6.4 m)
- Displacement: 105 tons (106.7 metric tons) full load
- Speed: 12 kt (13.8 mph, 22.2 km/h)
- Range: 190 nm (350 km) at 9 knots (17 km/h) full load
- Capacity: 53.5 tons (54.4 metric tons)
- Military lift: one M48 or one M60 tank or 200 troops
- Crew: 5
See also↑Jump back a section
- William F Buckingham. D-Day the First 72 hours Tempus Publishing, Stroud. 2004
- Norman Friedman U.S. Amphibious Ships and Craft: An Illustrated Design History Naval Institute Press, 2002 9781557502506
- Ladd, 1976, p. 44
- Skill in the Surf: A Landing Boat Manual
- LCM-6 principal characteristics
- History of "Logistics over The Shore" operations
- LCM & LCU fact file
- LCM information
- USS Rankin (AKA-103): LCM
- LCM-6 Xj3D/VRML model
- LCM-6 surface textures required for Xj3D/VRML model