Isaac Jacquelot (also Jaquelot) (1647–1708) was a French Huguenot minister and controversialist.
He was born in Vassy in Champagne where his father was a Huguenot pastor; he took over his father's position, but left France in 1685 on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He went to Heidelberg, and then took a position with a Walloon congregation at The Hague. Coming into conflict with Pierre Jurieu there, he left for Basel. He ended his life as court preacher in Berlin.
Jacquelot was a leading figure in the rationaux, the Huguenot proponents of rational theology. Along with Jean Le Clerc and Jacques Bernard, they looked for reason and faith to come into balance, and supported religious tolerance. They found themselves opposing Pierre Bayle, after 1700.
Jacquelot supported Anthonie van Dale's rejection of the supernatural, as did Le Clerc, with some qualification. Their positions, with that of Benjamin Binet, marked out the moderate rationalism of the first half of the 18th century.
On theodicy, Isaac Jacquelot agreed with Gottfried Leibniz in his Conformité. On the other hand he considered Leibniz's solution to the mind-body problem to be a less powerful variation on occasionalism. The two met in Berlin in 1702. Leibniz replied with his doctrine of pre-established harmony, which Jacquelot criticised on grounds of free will in a projected appendix to the Conformité, the Système abrégé de l'âme et de la liberté. After negotiation the Système abrégé appeared in a modified form.
Jacquelot used an argument from design in his Dissertations sur l'existence de Dieu, defending divine providence and revealed religion: observation can and will support the purposive nature of the creation of animals and Man. His exposition was much read subsequently.
During his time in Berlin, Jacquelot engaged in a final controversy with Pierre Bayle, who died in 1706 while the debate proceeded; he had frequently accused Bayle of declaring reason and faith incompatible by fiat. One contentious topic was the article on Manichaeism in Bayle's Dictionary. As part of the exchanges, Jacquelot declared in favour of Remonstrant (Arminian) views.Philippe Naudé attacked Jacquelot and Jean Le Clerc, and defended absolute predestination, in his La souveraine perfection de Dieu (Sovereign Perfections of God) (1708).
Jonathan I. Israel has characterised the outcome of the debate between Bayle and the rationaux as a serious setback for the latter. Jacquelot and Le Clerc were criticised by Jean-Nicolas-Hubert Hayer. The weakness in their approach, from a Christian perspective, was to claim too much for reason.
- Avis sur le tableau du socinianisme (1690)
- Examen de la théologie de Bayle
- Dissertations sur l'existence de Dieu (1697)
- Traité de la verité
- Dissertations sur le Messie, où l'on prouve aux Juifs que Jesus-Christ est le Messie promis et predit dans l'Ancien Testament (1699). This work arose from Jacquelot's contacts with Sephardi Jews in The Hague. A long response was made by Abraham Gómez Silveira; and it was attacked in the Messias Restaurado of Jacob de Andrade Velosino.
- Conformité de la foi avec la raison,
- Kort betoog van de waarheit des Christlyken godtsdiensts
- Histoire des souffrances du bien-heureux martyr Mr. Louis de Marolles
- Jonathan I. Israel (2001), Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750
- brillonline.com entry.
- (German) Herbert Jaumann, Handbuch Gelehrtenkultur der Frühen Neuzeit (2004), p. 257; Google Books.
- Judith Pollmann, Andrew Spicer (editors), Public Opinion and Changing Identities in the Early Modern Netherlands: essays in honour of Alastair Duke (2007), p. 286; Google Books.
- Israel, p. 366.
- Israel, p. 371.
- Jon Bartley Stewart (editor), Kierkegaard and the Renaissance and Modern Traditions Volume 1 (2009), p. 3; Google Books.
- R. S. Woolhouse (editor_, Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science in the Seventeenth and eighteenth Centuries: essays in honour of Gerd Buchdahl (1988), p. 165; Google Books.
- R. S. Woolhouse, Richard Francks, Leibniz's 'New System' and Associated Contemporary Texts (2006), pp. 171–3; Google Books.
- Israel, p. 459–61.
- Israel, p. 81.
- Israel, p. 338.
- Daniel Pickering Walker, The Decline of Hell (1964), p. 186; Google Books.
- A New and General Biographical Dictionary vol. 7 (1762), p. 20; Google Books.
- (Dutch) Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek article, Jaquelot, Isaac.
- John Marshall, John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture: religious intolerance and arguments for religious toleration in early modern and 'early Enlightenment' Europe (2008), p. 421 note 8; Google Books.
- Jonathan I. Israel, Democratic Enlightenment: Philosophy, Revolution, and Human Rights, 1750-1790 (2011), p. 163; Google Books.
- (French) Esther Benbassa, Les Sépharades en littérature: un parcours millénaire (2005), pp. 35–6; Google Books.
- Jewish Encyclopedia article.