Harvey Claflin Mansfield, Jr. (born 1932) is the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Government at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1962. He has held Guggenheim and NEH Fellowships and has been a Fellow at the National Humanities Center; he also received the National Humanities Medal in 2004 and delivered the Jefferson Lecture in 2007. He is a Carol G. Simon Senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is notable for his generally conservative stance on political issues in his writings.
Mansfield is the author and co-translator of studies of and/or by major political philosophers such as Aristotle, Edmund Burke, Niccolò Machiavelli, Alexis de Tocqueville, and Thomas Hobbes, of Constitutional government, and of Manliness (2006). In interviews Mansfield has acknowledged the work of Leo Strauss as the key modern influence on his own political philosophy.
Among his most notable former students include: Andrew Sullivan,Alan Keyes, Robert Kraynak, John Gibbons, William Kristol, Nathan Tarcov, Clifford Orwin, Mark Blitz, Paul Cantor, Delba Winthrop, Mark Lilla, Arthur Melzer, Jerry Weinberger, Francis Fukuyama, Shen Tong, Sharon Krause, and James Ceaser.
Mansfield has been at Harvard since his own student days in 1949, having joined the faculty in 1962. He received his A.B. at Harvard in 1953 and Ph.D. from the same institution in 1961. He was married to the late Delba Winthrop, with whom he co-translated and co-authored work on Tocqueville.
Harvey C. Mansfield, Jr. is the son of Harvey C. Mansfield, who was the Ruggles Professor Emeritus of Public Law and Government at Columbia University at the time of his death in 1988 at the age of 83.
A Student's Guide to Political Philosophy
In his 2001 book A Student's Guide to Political Philosophy, Mansfield traces the history of political philosophy in "the great books" written by Plato, Aristotle, Locke, Rousseau, and others of the "highest rank" (1). He also finds political philosophy in practical politics, which Mansfield considers necessarily partisan, because it involves citizens "arguing passionately pro and con with advocacy and denigration, accusation and defense" (2). He argues that politics does not merely consist of liberal and conservative options, but rather, they are fundamentally opposed to each other, with each side defending its own interest as it attempts to appeal to the common good (2). Since such adversarial sides in a political dispute appeal to the common good, an observer of the dispute can use his capacity to reason to judge which side supplies the most compelling arguments. If such an observer is competent to be a judge, he or she may be thought of as a political philosopher, or as at least on the way to engaging in political philosophy (2–3).
Mansfield stresses the connection between politics and political philosophy, but he does not find political philosophy in political science, which for Mansfield is a rival to political philosophy and "apes" the natural sciences (3–5). From Mansfield's point of view, political science replaces words like "good", "just", and "noble" with other words like "utility" or "preferences." The terms are meant to be neutral, but as a result of the political scientist's purported change of role and perspective from judge to so‑called "disinterested observer", such a "scientist" is not able to determine whose arguments are the best, because he or she falls victim to relativism, which, according to Mansfield, is "a sort of lazy dogmatism" (4–5).
In his guide, Mansfield reminds students that political science rebelled from political philosophy in the seventeenth century and declared itself distinct and separate in the positivist movement of the late nineteenth century: thus, he argues in it that whereas "Today political science is often said to be 'descriptive' or 'empirical,' concerned with facts; political philosophy is called 'normative' because it expresses values. But these terms merely repeat in more abstract form the difference between political science, which seeks agreement, and political philosophy, which seeks the best" (6).
Furthermore, according to Mansfield, when people talk about the difference between political philosophy and political science, they are actually talking about two distinct kinds of political philosophy, one modern and the other ancient. The only way to understand modern political science and its ancient alternative fully, he stresses, is to enter the history of political philosophy, and to study the tradition handed down over the centuries: "No one can count himself educated who does not have some acquaintance with this tradition. It informs you of the leading possibilities of human life, and by giving you a sense of what has been tried and what is now dominant, it tells you where we are now in a depth not available from any other source" (7–8). Although modern political science feels no obligation to look at its roots, and might even denigrate the subject as if it could not be of any real significance, he says, "our reasoning shows that the history of political philosophy is required for understanding its substance" (7–8).
Controversies pertaining to Mansfield's work and views
Grade inflation, affirmative action, and the ironic grade
Mansfield is well known for his opposition to grade inflation at Harvard University, which he claims is due in part to affirmative action. Manfield also participated in a debate on affirmative action between Cornel West and Michael Sandel (arguing for affirmative action) with Ruth Wisse and himself (arguing against affirmative action). The debate attracted a "massive audience" of a thousand Harvard students, requiring its campus venue to be changed twice before it could take place on November 3, 1997, in Harvard's Sanders Theater, prompting Professor Sandel to comment, "'This puts to rest the myth that this generation has a political apathy, and apathy to political debates.'"
In response to grade inflation, according to Harvard Crimson reporters Lulu Zhou and Rebecca D. O'Brien, Mansfield revived the "ironic" (or the "inflated") grade in 2006, in order to let his students know what they really deserved in his class without causing them harm by grading them lower than the other professors at Harvard: "In Mansfield’s 'true and serious' grading system, 5 percent of students will receive A’s, and 15 percent will receive A-minuses. But Mansfield won’t share those marks with anyone other than his teaching fellows and students. ... By contrast, Mansfield’s 'ironic' grade—the only one that will appear on official transcripts—will follow average grade distribution in the College, with about a quarter of students receiving A’s and another quarter receiving A-minu[s]es"; in contrast, their privately received deserved "real" (lower) grades usually centered around a C or C-minus, earning him the nickname "Harvey C-minus Mansfield." "This [grading] policy—meant to demonstrate the causes and effects of grade inflation—drew heat from students and faculty, and attracted national media attention." Mansfield himself has joked that his middle initial "C." stands for compassion: "That's what I lack when it comes to grading." In an interview with the Hoover Institution, Mansfield claimed that college professors are too quick to label students as exceptional.
In response to multiculturalism on college campuses, Mansfield has defended the importance of preserving and teaching courses on Western civilization, even proposing a survey course that selects a dozen or so books that capture the principal themes. Mansfield believes that understanding Western civilization is important because the books that explain it deal with problems associated with the human condition.
Defense of the "strong executive"
Mansfield has argued that the President of the United States has "extra-legal powers such as commanding the military, making treaties (and carrying on foreign policy), and pardoning the convicted, not to mention a veto of legislation", observing that the U.S. Constitution does not ask the President to take an oath to execute the laws, but rather, to execute "the office of the president, which is larger." (It must be noted that the above "arguments" are taken nearly word for word from the Constitution of the United States, and constitute therefore not an argument but a statement of fact.) Referring to domestic surveillance, Mansfield notes, "those arguing that the executive should be subject to checks and balances are wrong to say or imply that the president may be checked in the sense of stopped. The president can be held accountable and made responsible, but if he could be stopped, the Constitution would lack any sure means of emergency action. He defends the Separation of powers, arguing that "the executive subordinated to the rule of law is in danger of being subordinate to the legislature."
Taming the Prince
In his book Taming the Prince, Mansfield traces the modern doctrine of executive power to Niccolo Machiavelli. He argues that executive power had to be tamed to become compatible with liberal constitutionalism.
Machiavelli's New Modes and Orders
In Machiavelli's New Modes and Orders, Machiavelli's Virtue, and other writings, Mansfield argues that Machiavelli effected a decisive break between ancient and modern political philosophy. According to Mansfield, Machiavelli sought to revive Roman political spirit, which he believed had been supplanted by Christian doctrines. However, Machiavelli's unique emphasis on political or active virtue (the overcoming of necessity and fortune) over ancient contemplative virtue opened the way to a new, modern politics rather than a return to pre-Christian morality and philosophy. Moreover, Mansfield argues that Machiavelli's modern "virtue" was "emasculated" by later modern authors, who propounded "more regular and scientific modes of overcoming fortune".
Burke and Party Government
Mansfield locates the theoretical underpinnings of modern party government in the writings of Edmund Burke. In Statesmanship and Party Government, Mansfield discusses the importance of political competition between parties within Burke's broader philosophy of government. Furthermore, in "Party Government and the Settlement of 1688", Mansfield argues that modern party government, in which opposing parties are each considered respectable members of a pluralistic system, requires that questions concerning religion and first principles cease to hold primary importance in politics (a practical manifestation of the "theologico-political problem" discussed by Leo Strauss).
Gender roles and equality
In his 2006 book Manliness, Mansfield defended a moderately conservative understanding of gender roles, and bemoaned the loss of the virtue of manliness in a "gender neutral" society. In a New York Times interview, he defined the concept briefly as "confidence in a situation of risk. A manly man has to know what he is doing." He defines the idea in more concrete terms in the actual book. There, a manly man does not have to know what he is doing, but only has to act as though he does. Also in the book, Mansfield subjects the concept of manliness to a test in which he refers for support of his argument to such diverse authorities as Homer, Hemingway, Kipling, Aristotle, Plato, and Naomi Wood. In his argument, manliness is ultimately related to assertiveness -- "decisiveness without complete knowledge" -- and its place in society is debated.
Manliness was criticized by Martha Nussbaum in the June 22, 2006, issue of The New Republic. Nussbaum accuses Mansfield of misreading, or refusing to read, many feminist and nonfeminist texts. She argues that his book is based on overt misogynistic assumptions that take a position of indifference towards violence against women. Mansfield asserts, she contends, that a woman can resist rape only with the aid of "a certain ladylike modesty enabling her to take offense at unwanted encroachment".
Concerning controversial comments by former President of Harvard, Lawrence Summers, about mental differences between men and women, Mansfield said that it is "probably true" that women "innately have less capacity than men at the highest level of science...It's common sense if you just look at who the top scientists are".
On May 8, 2007, Mansfield delivered the 36th Jefferson Lecture ("the highest honor the federal government bestows for distinguished intellectual and public achievement in the humanities", according to the National Endowment for the Humanities, which sponsored the lecture). In his lecture, Mansfield suggests "two improvements for today’s understanding of politics arising from the humanities ... first ... to recapture the notion of thumos in Plato, and Aristotle... [and] ...second ... the use of names—proper to literature and foreign to science".
This, of course, is a reference to his own philosophy, which forbade discounting the wisdom of the past simply because those who spoke it lived a long time ago.
- Statesmanship and Party Government: A Study of Burke and Bolingbroke. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
- The Spirit of Liberalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978.
- Machiavelli's New Modes and Orders: A Study of the Discourses on Livy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979. Rpt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
- Thomas Jefferson: Selected Writings. Ed. and introd. Wheeling, IL: H. Davidson, 1979.
- Selected Letters of Edmund Burke. Ed. with introd. entitled "Burke's Theory of Political Practice". Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
- The Prince, by Niccolò Machiavelli. Trans. and introd. 2nd (corr.) ed. 1985; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. (Inc. glossary.)
- Florentine Histories, by Niccolò Machiavelli. Ed., trans. and introd. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. (Co-trans. and co-ed., Laura F. Banfield.)
- Taming the Prince: The Ambivalence of Modern Executive Power. New York: The Free Press, 1989.
- America's Constitutional Soul. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
- Machiavelli’s Virtue. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
- Discourses on Livy, by Niccolò Machiavelli. Trans. and introd. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. (Co-trans., Nathan Tarcov.)
- Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville. Trans. and introd. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. (Co-trans., Delba Winthrop.)
- A Student’s Guide to Political Philosophy. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2001.
- Manliness. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
- Tocqueville: A Very Short Introduction. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Awards and honors
- Guggenheim Fellowship (1970–71)
- National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship (1974–75)
- Member of the Council of the American Political Science Association (1980–82, 2004)
- Fellow of the National Humanities Center (1982)
- Member of the USIA's Board of Foreign Scholarships (1987–89)
- Member of the National Council on the Humanities (1991–94)
- Joseph R. Levenson Teaching Award (1993)
- President of the New England Historical Association (1993–94)
- Sidney Hook Memorial Award (2002)
- National Humanities Medal (2004)
- 36th Jefferson Lecture for the National Endowment for the Humanities (2007)
- See, e.g., Josh Harlan and Christopher Kagay, "Harvey C. Mansfield, Jr.: The Question of Conservatism", interview, Harvard Review of Philosophy 3 (1993), accessed June 2, 2007. [Restricted access?] Cf. cached HTML version, "The Question of Conservatism", accessed June 17, 2007. (18 pages.)
- Andrew Sullivan, "Daily Express: Provocations", The New Republic Online (NRO only; blog), January 19, 2005. (Subscription required for full access.) Cf. Contributing Editor, Andrew Sullivan biography at The New Republic.
- David Horowitz, "We Had A Secret Handshake Too", FrontPage Magazine, August 22, 2005, accessed June 16, 2006.
- "Harvey Mansfield, 83; Taught at Columbia". New York Times. 10 May 1988.
- Harvey C. Mansfield, A Student's Guide to Political Philosophy (Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books, 2001). ISBN 1-882926-43-9. (Subsequent parenthetical references to this work follow in the text.)
- Harvey C. Mansfield, "Point of View: Grade Inflation: It's Time to Face the Facts", The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 6, 2001, accessed June 18, 2007.
- As qtd. in Luke McLoughlin, "Walking the Walk: Dialogue Is Only a Prelude to Involvement", archived issue of Digitas (Dec. 1997), accessed February 6, 2007. [Digitas is "a student organization dedicated to new technology" at Harvard University.]
- Lulu Zhou, "'C-minus' Prof to Give More As", The Harvard Crimson, February 13, 2006, accessed February 9, 2007.
- Rebecca D. O'Brien, "Professor Fights Grade Inflation, Affirmative Action", The Harvard Crimson, June 2, 2003, accessed February 6, 2007.
- "Harvey Mansfield- The Left on Campus". The Hoover Institution. The Hoover Institution. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Harvey Mansfield, "The Law and the President: In a National Emergency, Who You Gonna Call?" The Weekly Standard, January 16, 2006, accessed February 5, 2007.
- Harvey C. Mansfield, "The Case for the Strong Executive: Under Some Circumstances, the Rule of Law Must Yield to the Need for Energy", Wall Street Journal, May 2, 2007, accessed June 17, 2007.
- Mansfield, Harvey (1989). Taming the Prince. New York: The Free Press.
- Mansfield, Harvey (1996). Machiavelli's Virtue. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Mansfield, Harvey, "Party Government and the Settlement of 1688," American Political Science Review, vol. 58 (1964).
- Of Manliness and Men from the New York Times
-  from The New Republic
- "Harvey Mansfield, Noted American Author and Political Theorist, to Deliver the 2007 Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities", press release, National Endowment for the Humanities, March 22, 2007, accessed June 3, 2007.
- "About the Jefferson Lecture", National Endowment for the Humanities, accessed June 16, 2007.
- Harvey C. Mansfield, "How to Understand Politics: What the Humanities Can Say to Science", 36th Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities, presented on May 8, 2007, at the Warner Theatre, Washington, D.C., neh.gov (NEH), accessed June 16, 2007.
- Philip Kennicott, "A Strauss Primer, With Glossy Mansfield Finish", The Washington Post, May 9, 2007, accessed June 3, 2007.
- "HarveyMansfield.org. Website devoted to the work of Harvey Mansfield in a searchable format along with scholarly commentary, multimedia, biography, and other resources.
- "Democracy in America. Colloquium on their translation of the book Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, presented by Harvey Mansfield and Delba Winthrop. March 30, 2001. Ashbrook Center, Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio.
- "Dr. Harvey Mansfield, Author of Manliness". Public lecture at the New Hampshire Institute of Politics, Saint Anselm College, Goffstown, New Hampshire. April 20, 2006. Accessed June 17, 2007. MP3 podcast.
- Harvey Mansfield, William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of Government. Faculty webpage. Department of Government, Harvard University.
- "Harvey Mansfield" NEH website for 2007 Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities by Harvey C. Mansfield.
- Ifill, Gwen. "Then and Now: Mansfield". Transcript of interview with Harvey Mansfield. Broadcast on The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, September 13, 2002. Accessed June 18, 2007. (Inc. links to streaming video and RealPlayer audio.)
- Video of Stephen Colbert interviewing Harvey Mansfield about Mansfield's book Manliness on The Colbert Report, Comedy Central. Broadcast April 5, 2006. Accessed April 11, 2008. (Caption: "Harvey Mansfield and Stephen collide in a perfect storm of man musk.")
- Works by or about Harvey Mansfield in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Booknotes, December 17, 2000 - Interview with Mansfield on the 2000 University of Chicago Press edition of Democracy in America, which he and his wife, Delba Winthrop, translated and edited. (Audio plays upon load; page includes transcript)
- In Depth interview with Mansfield, September 4, 2005