|Subspecies himalayana (Western Uttarakhand, India)|
The Grey Tree-pie, also known as the Himalayan Tree-pie, is one of the six attractive members of the genus Dendrocitta, collectively known as the tree-pies. They are found in Asia from the Indian sub-region to Formosa, Sumatra and Borneo. The Himalayan or grey tree-pie are omnivorous birds mostly thriving in dense fertile foliage and forestry. They seek the company of the Laughing Thrush, especially the white-throated, often joining mixed avian hunting parties that are so much a part of the Himalayan scene. Systematically together working through the hill forests, rhododendrons, oaks and other broad leaved trees, especially in the mornings.
It is the same size as other Dendrocitta species and is separated from them by the overall grey colour of the body. The races in the western part of the distribution have a greyish rump and some grey in tail while the eastern forms have a white rump and a black tail. The face and throat are dark and black with a diffuse mask. The body is grey on the underside becoming whiter towards the vent. The back and scapulars are brownish. The crown and nape are greyish and the black wing has a prominent white carpal patch. The vent is rufous and the outer tail feathers and tips of the central feathers are black.
The species occupies a large geographical range and has several recognised regional forms that differ slightly from one another for instance in colour and tail length. These include occidentalis of the western Himalayan foothills (identified by its slightly longer tail), himalayana from the central Himalayas east into Thailand and Vietnam. A disjunct population, said to have a smaller or narrower bill, is found in the Eastern Ghats of peninsular India, sarkari, that is sometimes subsumed into himalayana. The Southeast Asian races include assimilis, sapiens, sinica, formosae (the nominate race from Taiwan) and insulae (Hainan Island).
Distribution and habitat
The Grey Treepie is largely arboreal and is found in a wide range of habitats including forest, cultivation and human habitation. The distribution range includes Pakistan, India, Nepal, Assam, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, southern China, Taiwan and Indochina.
Behaviour and ecology
This treepie is mostly an arboreal feeder but will take some food from the ground especially in cultivated regions. A wide range of insects and other invertebrates are taken including berries, nectar, grain and other seeds and also small reptiles, eggs and nestlings. It sometimes joins mixed-species foraging flocks.
In the foothills of the Himalayas in India, they are known to breeds from 2000 to 6000 feet mainly during the months of May to July. The nest is a shallow cup lined with hair and is built in trees and bushes or clumps of bamboo with 3-4 eggs per clutch.
The voice is described as harsh and grating, but like other species is quite varied and includes a grating k-r-r-r-r sound as well as more melodious notes not unlike those of the Rufous Treepie. These include a tiddly-aye-kok, ko-ku-la and barking braap...braap...braap calls.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Dendrocitta formosae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Rasmussen PC & JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions. pp. 595–596.
- Abdulali,Humayun (1980). "On the validity of Dendrocitta formosae sarkari, Kinnear & Whistler". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 77 (1): 142–143.
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- Ali, S & S D Ripley (1986). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan 5 (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 225–228.
- Dickinson, E.C., S. Eck & J. Martens (2004). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 44. A preliminary review of the Corvidae". Zool. Verh. Leiden 350: 85–109.
- Chen, Chao-Chieh; Hsieh, Fushing (2002). "Composition and foraging behaviour of mixed-species flocks led by the Grey-cheeked Fulvetta in Fushan Experimental Forest, Taiwan". Ibis 144 (2): 317. doi:10.1046/j.1474-919X.2002.00020.x.
- Hume, AO (1889). The nests and eggs of Indian birds. Volume 1. R H Porter. pp. 23–25.
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