||This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2009)|
|Born||Graham Arthur Chapman
8 January 1941
Leicester, Leicestershire, England
|Died||4 October 1989
Maidstone, Kent, England
|Other names||Gray Chapman|
|Alma mater||Cambridge University|
|Occupation||Comedian, writer, actor|
|Notable work(s)||Monty Python|
|Partner(s)||David Sherlock (1966–1989)|
Early life and education
Chapman was born at the Stoneygate Nursing Home, Stoneygate, Leicester. He was educated at Melton Mowbray Grammar School and studied medicine at St Bartholomew's Medical College and later at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He was an avid fan of radio comedy from an early age, becoming especially drawn to that of The Goon Show. In the introduction to Chapman's (2005/2006) posthumous anthology, Jim Yoakum notes that "the radio shows didn't necessarily make him laugh. Only a select few got chuckles from young Chapman including Frankie Howerd, the team of Jimmy Jewel and Ben Warriss, It's That Man Again, Educating Archie, Take It From Here and Much-Binding-in-the-Marsh. 'I especially liked Robert Moreton, although no one else seemed to like him very much. He would do things like tell jokes the wrong way around and switch punch lines. He was obviously a very good comedian and was ahead of his time. The appearance of incompetence was wonderful. He was one of my heroes.' But the show that truly astounded Graham, and was a major influence on his comedy was The Goon Show" (p.xvii). Chapman states "from about the age of seven or eight I used to be an avid listener of a radio programme called The Goon Show. In fact, at that stage I wanted to be a Goon" (p. 23).
Chapman and John Cleese wrote professionally for the BBC during the 1960s, initially for David Frost, but also for Marty Feldman. Chapman also contributed sketches to the BBC radio series I'm Sorry, I'll Read That Again and television programmes such as The Illustrated Weekly Hudd (starring Roy Hudd), Cilla Black, This is Petula Clark, and This Is Tom Jones. Chapman, Cleese, and Tim Brooke-Taylor later joined Feldman in the television comedy series At Last the 1948 Show. There, Chapman displayed a gift for deadpan comedy (such as in the sketch "The Minister Who Falls to Pieces") and for imitating various British dialects. Chapman and Cleese also wrote for the long-running television comedy series Doctor in the House. Chapman also co-wrote several episodes with Bernard McKenna and David Sherlock.
In 1969, Chapman and Cleese joined the other Pythons including Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin for their sketch comedy show Flying Circus. Chapman most often played characters with personalities close to his own: outwardly calm and authoritative figures barely concealing a manic unpredictability. In David Morgan's book Monty Python Speaks, Cleese asserted that Chapman, although officially his co-writer for many of their sketches, contributed comparatively little in the way of direct writing. Rather, the other Pythons have said that Chapman's biggest contribution in the writing room was an intuition as to what was funny. Cleese said in an interview that one of Chapman's great attributes was "his weird takes on things." In writing sessions Chapman "would lob in an idea or a line from out of left field into the engine room, but he could never be the engine", Cleese said. In the Dead Parrot sketch, written mostly by Cleese, the frustrated customer was initially trying to return a faulty toaster to a shop. Chapman asked "How can we make this madder?", and then came up with the idea that returning a dead Norwegian Blue parrot to a pet shop might make for a more interesting subject than returning a toaster. In Monty Python Live at Aspen, Cleese said that the original idea came from a man Palin bought a car from, who had endless excuses for everything that went wrong with it. Cleese said that he and Chapman believed that "there was something very funny there, if we could find the right context for it."
Chapman played the lead roles in the Pythons' two narrative feature films Holy Grail and Life of Brian. Cleese complimented Chapman by saying that he was "very possibly the best actor of all of us". In the late 1970s, Chapman moved to Los Angeles, where he guest-starred on many television shows including Hollywood Squares, Still Crazy Like a Fox, and The Big Show. Upon his return to England, Chapman became involved with the Dangerous Sports Club (an extreme sports club which introduced bungee jumping to a wide audience). Chapman and Douglas Adams wrote a pilot for a TV series in 1975, Out of the Trees, but it never went beyond the initial episode. They also wrote an unmade show for Ringo Starr. Chapman mentored Adams, but they later had a falling out and did not speak for several years. In 1978, Chapman co-wrote (with Bernard McKenna) and starred in The Odd Job alongside David Jason who had previously appeared on Do Not Adjust Your Set with Idle, Jones, and Palin. The film was only moderately successful. Chapman's memoir, A Liar's Autobiography, was published in 1980 and, unusually for a work of this type, had five authors: Chapman, his partner David Sherlock, Alex Martin, David Yallop and Douglas Adams.
Although writing had begun in the late 1970s, Chapman was finally able to secure funding for his much cherished pirate project Yellowbeard in 1982. Once again, Chapman collaborated with writer Bernard McKenna and for the first time with Peter Cook. The film, which starred Chapman as the eponymous pirate, also featured appearances from Peter Cook, Marty Feldman, Cleese, Idle, Spike Milligan, and Cheech & Chong. It marks the last appearance of Feldman, who suffered a fatal heart attack during shooting. It was released in 1983 to mixed reviews. In a 2001 interview, Cleese described Yellowbeard as "one of the six worst films made in the history of the world." Eric Idle also later dismissed the film although he remembered his participation fondly.
After reuniting with the other Pythons in The Meaning of Life, Chapman began a lengthy series of American college tours in which he would tell the audience anecdotes about Monty Python, the Dangerous Sports Club, Keith Moon, and other subjects. In 1988, he appeared in the Iron Maiden video Can I Play with Madness. His final project was to have been a TV series called Jake's Journey. Although the pilot episode was made, there were difficulties selling the project. Chapman was also to have played a guest role as a television presenter in the Red Dwarf episode "Timeslides", but died before filming was to have started. In the years since Chapman's death, despite the existence of the "Graham Chapman Archive", only a few of his projects have been released. One of these projects is a play entitled O Happy Day, brought to life in 2000 by Dad's Garage Theatre Company in Atlanta, Georgia. Cleese and Palin assisted the theatre company in adapting the play.
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Chapman was a tall (6'2"/1.88 m), craggy pipe-smoker who enjoyed mountaineering and playing rugby. He was an alcoholic from his time in medical school. His fellow Pythons noted he felt he needed a drink or two to "face the world" and at times would forget in the afternoon material that had been written the same day. His drinking also affected his performance on the TV recording set as well as on the set of Holy Grail, where he suffered from withdrawal symptoms including delirium tremens. He stopped drinking on Boxing Day 1977, having just annoyed the other Pythons with an outspoken (and drunken) interview with the New Musical Express. Before going sober, Chapman jokingly referred to himself as the British actress Betty Marsden, possibly because of Marsden's oft-quoted desire to die with a glass of gin in her hand. John Cleese used Marsden's name in his eulogy at Chapman's memorial service.
Chapman kept his sexuality a secret until 1967, although he did allude to it in some Monty Python sketches. He came out as homosexual on a chat show hosted by British jazz musician George Melly, becoming one of the first celebrities to come out publicly. Several days later, he came out to a group of friends at a party held at his home in Belsize Park, where he officially introduced them to his partner, David Sherlock, whom he had met in Ibiza in 1966. Chapman later told a story in his college tour that when he went public, a member of the television audience wrote to the Pythons to complain that she had heard a member of the team was gay, adding that the Bible said any man who lies with a man should be taken out and stoned. With fellow Pythons already aware of his sexual orientation, Eric Idle replied, "We've found out who it was and we've taken him out and had him killed." In his book Graham Crackers, Chapman said that this took place just before Cleese left the show, and he wondered what the woman thought about his disappearance after getting Idle's response.
Chapman was a vocal spokesman for LGBT rights, and in 1972 he lent his support to the fledgling newspaper Gay News, which publicly acknowledged his financial and editorial support by listing him as one of its "special friends". In 1971, Chapman and Sherlock adopted John Tomiczek as their son. Chapman met Tomiczek when the teenager was a runaway from Liverpool. After discussions with Tomiczek's father, it was agreed that Chapman would become Tomiczek's legal guardian, and Tomiczek later became Chapman's business manager. Tomiczek died of a heart attack in 1992.
Death and funeral
Chapman died on 4 October 1989 after suffering from tonsil cancer and secondary spinal cancer. Chapman had several chemotherapy treatments and tumour removal surgeries within the final months of his life, and at one point, he used a wheelchair. Weeks before Chapman's death, his cancer was declared terminal. Chapman had produced scenes for the 20th anniversary of the first broadcast of Flying Circus, the final time he appeared on television, but he became ill again three days before his death. Those present at the time of Chapman's death in a Maidstone hospital included his brother, sister-in-law, partner David Sherlock, and his former Python fellows John Cleese and Michael Palin, who had to be led out of the room to deal with their grief.Terry Jones and Peter Cook had visited earlier that day. Chapman's death occurred on the eve of the 20th anniversary of the first broadcast of Flying Circus, and Jones called it "the worst case of party-pooping in all history". It was reported that Chapman's last words were: "Sorry for saying fuck", to a nurse who accidentally stuck a needle in his arm shortly before he died.
The five surviving Python members had decided to stay away from Chapman's private funeral to prevent it from becoming a media circus and to give his family some privacy. They sent a wreath in the shape of the famous Python foot with the message: "To Graham from the other Pythons. Stop us if we're getting too silly". They held a private memorial service for Chapman in St Bartholomew's Hospital in London two months after his death, with a chorus of the Chinese version of the hymn "Jerusalem" ("… Bling me my speal, oh crowds unford, bling me my chaliot of file…"). Cleese delivered his eulogy to Chapman, which began as follows:
Graham Chapman, co-author of the "Parrot Sketch", is no more. He has ceased to be. Bereft of life, he rests in peace. He's kicked the bucket, hopped the twig, bit the dust, snuffed it, breathed his last, and gone to meet the great Head of Light Entertainment in the sky. And I guess that we're all thinking how sad it is that a man of such talent, of such capability for kindness, of such unusual intelligence, should now so suddenly be spirited away at the age of only forty-eight, before he'd achieved many of the things of which he was capable, and before he'd had enough fun.
Well, I feel that I should say: nonsense. Good riddance to him, the freeloading bastard, I hope he fries. And the reason I feel I should say this is he would never forgive me if I didn't, if I threw away this glorious opportunity to shock you all on his behalf. Anything for him, but mindless good taste. ...
Cleese continued after a break from the laughter in the audience and claimed that Chapman had whispered in his ear the night before while he was writing the speech, saying:
All right, Cleese. You say you're very proud of being the very first person ever to say "shit" on British television. If this service is really for me, just for starters, I want you to become the first person ever at a British memorial service to say "fuck".
Palin later spoke after Cleese, saying that he liked to think that Chapman was there with them all that day—"or rather, he will be in about 25 minutes", a reference to Chapman's habitual lateness when he and the other Pythons were working together. Choking back tears, Idle stated that Chapman had thought that Palin talked too much and had died rather than listen to him any more. Idle also led the other surviving Pythons and Chapman's friends and family in a rendition of "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life" from the film The Life of Brian. Not to be outdone by Cleese, Idle was heard saying during the song's close: "I'd just like to be the last person at this meeting to say 'fuck'. Thank you very much. God bless you, Graham." On 31 December 1999, Chapman's ashes were rumoured to have been "blasted into the skies in a rocket". In reality, Sherlock scattered Chapman's ashes on Snowdon, North Wales, on 18 June 2005.
Since Chapman's death, the speculation of a Python revival was inevitably diminished. Idle stated: "We would only do a reunion if Chapman came back from the dead. So we're negotiating with his agent." Subsequent gatherings of the Pythons have included an urn said to contain Chapman's ashes. At the 1998 Aspen Comedy Arts festival, the urn was "accidentally" knocked over by Terry Gilliam, spilling the "ashes" on-stage. The apparently cremated remains were then removed with a dust-buster. Asteroid 9617 Grahamchapman, named in Chapman's honour, is one of six asteroids named after the Python members.
In 1997 Sherlock allowed Jim Yoakum to start the Graham Chapman Archives. Later that year, the novel Graham Crackers: Fuzzy Memories, Silly Bits, and Outright Lies was released. It is a semi-sequel to A Liar's Autobiography, with Chapman works compiled by Yoakum. Ojril: The Completely Incomplete Graham Chapman, a collection of previously unpublished material, was released in 1999. It contains scripts Chapman wrote with Douglas Adams and others, such as "Our show for Ringo Starr, a.k.a. Goodnight Vienna". In 2005 Calcium Made Interesting: Sketches, Letters, Essays & Gondolas was published. At one time, the script for "Out of the Trees", written by Chapman and Adams in 1975 (and later extensively rewritten by Chapman with Bernard McKenna), was online. Jim Yoakum had it removed, to the disappointment of co-writer Adams, who had made no objections to it being there.
Recordings of Chapman's college tours during the 1980s have been released over the years. The CD A Liar Live was delayed several times, but was released as A Six Pack of Lies in 1997. Other college tours also came out on CD, such as Spot the Loony in 2001. A DVD of the tours (Looks Like a Brown Trouser Job) was released in 2005. The single episodes for "Out of the Trees", which was wiped but later recovered on an early home video system, and "Jake's Journey" still have not been released. In 2004, there was talk of a movie about Chapman's life, to be called Gin and Tonic, by Hippofilms in cooperation with Jim Yoakum. Auditions were held in March 2004 in California, but the project has been officially abandoned. Its website is no longer online and the Internet Movie Database page has been deleted; the Graham Chapman Archive's website has disappeared as well.
In June 2011 it was announced that most of the surviving Python members (everyone except Idle) will perform in a 3-D animated version of Chapman's memoir A Liar’s Autobiography: Volume VI. The movie, called A Liar's Autobiography - The Untrue Story of Monty Python's Graham Chapman has a running time of 85 minutes. It was shown at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 2012 and premiered in the UK on 16 October 2012 as part of the BFI London Film Festival. The voices of Cleese, Gilliam, Jones, and Palin were spliced into commentary recorded by Chapman reading from his memoir and taped shortly before his death and the story of Graham Chapman's life is told in 17 different animation styles by 14 different animation studios. The film's official trailer claims that Graham Chapman said, "This is the best film I've been in since I died."
In September 2012 a British Comedy Society blue plaque, to commemorate Chapman, was unveiled at The Angel pub in Highgate, North London, by Jones, Palin, Barry Cryer and Carol Cleveland. Palin said, "This was Graham's manor and Graham was a lovely guy. I spent many happy times with him, most of which I forget. Highgate was his patch and he should be celebrated because he was a very good, brilliant, funny, nice, wise, kind man, who occasionally drank too much."
|1969||The Magic Christian||Oxford Crew||Uncredited
|1970||Doctor in Trouble||Roddy|
|The Rise and Rise of Michael Rimmer||Fromage||Also Writer|
|1971||And Now for Something Completely Different||Various Roles||Also Writer|
|The Statue||News Reader|
|1975||Monty Python and the Holy Grail||King Arthur, Various Roles||Also Writer|
|1978||The Odd Job||Arthur Harris||Also Writer/Producer|
|1979||Monty Python's Life of Brian||Brian, Various Roles||Also Writer|
|1982||Monty Python Live at the Hollywood Bowl||Various Roles||Also Writer|
|1983||Monty Python's The Meaning of Life||Various Roles||Also Writer|
|The Crimson Permanent Assurance||Clerk||Short Film
|Yellowbeard||Captain Yellowbeard||Also Writer|
|1987||Still Crazy Like a Fox||Detective Inspector Palmer||TV Film|
|1988||Jake's Journey||Sir George/Queen||TV Film
|1989||Stage Fright||Smart Alec||Uncredited|
|2012||A Liar's Autobiography||Himself||Voice
- "Entertainment, Queen Mary, University of London". Qmul.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- Chapman, Graham (2006). Jim Yoakum, ed. Calcium Made Interesting: Sketches, Letters, Essays & Gondolas. London: Pan Books. ISBN 978-0-330-43543-7; ISBN 0-330-43543-4. Note: This is the same book as listed in the Bibliography, but a year later by a different publisher.
- 2001 interview included as an extra on the release of the John Cleese film Clockwise.
- http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19991006/ai_n14278222. Missing or empty
- Stern, Keith (2009). Queers in History: The Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Historical Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals, and Transgenders. BenBella Books. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-935251-83-5.
- Graham Chapman – Comedy Writer and Actor BBC, www.BBC.co.uk, 29 January 2003
- Mourning Graham Chapman
- "Monty Python reunion 'unlikely'". BBC News. 9 September 2003. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- The Pythons Autobiography
- Chapman, Graham, and Jim Yoakum. Graham Crackers. N.p.: Career, 1997. Print.
- John Cleese, Eric Idle (1989). Graham Chapman's funeral (.SWF) (Video). London, England: YouTube. Retrieved 20 January 2007. (transcript)
- "Video:Graham Chapman's Funeral". Youtube.com. 2006-04-19. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- "Python star Chapman's flying ashes". BBC News. 4 January 2000. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- BBC Comedy Map Of Great Britain, 15 September 2006, retrieved 15 September 2006
- "And now for something completely different (and plenty that isn't)". BBC News. 9 March 1998. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- "Daily Llama – NEWS 2004_02_06 – Worldwide Open Auditions Being Held to Play Young Monty Pythons in Graham Chapman Biography Film:". Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- Cieply, Michael (26 June 2011). "This May Be Something Completely Different". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
- "The search for the biggest Monty Python fan". British Film Institute. September 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-05.
- "Monty Python's Graham Chapman honoured with (unofficial) blue plaque" at guardian.co.uk
- McCabe, Bob (2005). The Life of Graham, The authorised biography of Graham Chapman. London: Orion Books. ISBN 0-7528-5773-8.
- Chapman, Graham; Yoakum, Jim (October 2005). Jim Yoakum, ed. Calcium Made Interesting : Sketches, Letters, Essays & Gondolas. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-07016-1.
- Hewison, Robert (1983). Footlights! – A Hundred Years of Cambridge Comedy. London: Methuen London. ISBN 0-413-51150-2.
- Wilmut, Roger (1980). From Fringe to Flying Circus – 'Celebrating a Unique Generation of Comedy 1960–1980'. Eyre Methuen. ISBN 0-413-46950-6.
- Chapman, Graham (1980). A Liar's Autobiography (Volume VI). Methuen Publishing. ISBN 0-416-00901-8.
- Wholey, Dennis (1984). The Courage to Change - Personal Conversations about Alcoholism (see Chapter 4 -"Quitting"). Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-35758-8.
- Graham Chapman at PythOnline Pythons Page
- Graham Chapman at the British Film Institute's Screenonline
- Graham Chapman at the Internet Broadway Database
- Graham Chapman at the Internet Movie Database
- Graham Chapman at Yahoo! Movies
- Graham Chapman at the BBC Comedy Guide
- Graham Chapman at the Comedy Zone
- Graham Chapman at Gay Greats