Government of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
The governance (polity) of the Seventh-day Adventist Church is based on democratic representation, and therefore resembles the Presbyterian system of church organization. The organizational structure of the church consists of the following levels:
- The global church is called the "General Conference", composed operatively of 13 "Division"s.
- Each division is composed of "Union Conferences" and/or "Union Missions" (112 total). Union Conferences are self-supporting financially, while Union Missions are not.
- Each union conference is composed of [local] "Conferences" and/or "Missions" (572 total). Local Conferences are self-supporting financially, while Local Missions are not. Certain unions are composed of local congregations. They do not have local conferences/missions.
- Each local conference/mission is composed of local churches (congregations). Often a number of local congregations are grouped operatively as a district, led by one senior pastor. In the United States, these numbers tend to be smaller (2-4 churches per district, perhaps), while in most of the worldwide church, the numbers tend to be larger (5+ per district and per pastor, sometimes as many as 15 or more).
Each level of organization holds a "general session" at certain intervals, when elected representatives gather to vote on general decisions and church business. The president of the General Conference, for instance, is elected at the General Conference Session every five years.
At the local churches, decisions are made by elected committees through vote of members. The day-to-day running of churches is governed by a church board formed by members of that church, together with the pastor of that congregation.
In contrast to congregational polity, the conference corporation owns church property, employs and pays ministers, and receives tithes from members. In contrast to episcopal polity, the ministers or pastors are a single level of ordained clergy and there are no bishops; elders and deacons are lay ministries. Moreover, it incorporates a hierarchical polity.
A 2002 survey of Adventists worldwide showed three quarters "affirm the structure, polity, and financial policies of the church."
Global Church offices
General Conference President
A President is elected at the General Conference Session every 5 years and presides over the Executive Committee.
General Conference Secretary
Local Church offices
There are a number of church offices that are elected by the church body as specified by the Church Manual. Positions must be filled by baptised members who attend regularly and the position is held for a 12 month term, except in special circumstances where the church chooses to elect offices once every 24 months. Offices are never elected permanently, although persons may be reelected.
The most prominent church office is that of the pastor or minister. Adventists believe that pastors are divinely called to ministry and they are ordained by the church for their ministry. The position of church pastor is not elected by the local church, but rather appointed by a local conference. When the minister transfers to the local church for pastoralship he also transfers his membership to that local congregation. Adventist believe in clerical marriage and not a celibate priesthood. In the majority of cases the pastor works with the head elder of the church and is responsible for guiding the church's spiritual direction, chairing the church board and leading out in services.
Working with the pastor in the local church is the elder who is appointed by the local church and ordained by the local pastor. The elder is seen as a religious leader in the local church and is able to conduct ordinances. The elder, or elders in some cases (who are led by a "head elder"), is largely responsible for the running of the church and the distribution of responsibility in the church. In the Adventist Church "elder" is not a title. It's a function. The term "pastor" is a function and often used as a title. The "local elder's position authority is limited to the local church he is serving. The "pastor's" authority is universal. The local elder gets his authority from the pastor he is serving under or otherwise from the field administration. The pastor's authority is inherent in his position as pastor.
The deacon, like the elder, is an elected and ordained role. The deacon's primary roles are the assistance in running of services, the visitation of members, the care of the sick and the maintenance of church property.
The deaconess holds a similar position to a deacon. Earlier no provision was given for their ordination, but the 2010 General Conference Session held in Atlanta, USA, decided for the ordination of deaconesses as is the case of deacons, a polity change. The duties of a deaconess are very similar to the deacon, with particular emphasis placed on assistance in running services and the care of the sick.
The clerk is an elected position, and is responsible for the keeping of church records. The clerk facilitates the addition and removal of members from church records at the request of the church and helps with the generation of church reports to be presented to the conference.
The treasurer is an elected position responsible for the keeping of church funds. The treasurer is responsible for keeping accounts and the safeguarding of the money.
The officially endorsed abbreviation of "Seventh-day Adventist" is "Adventist", not "SDA".
Criticism and affirmation
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2007)|
Critics of Seventh-day Adventist church governance have frequently pointed out that the denomination has a superfluity of church structure, and spends a great deal of its resources maintaining four levels of administrative structure—a structure which is frequently redundant, and per member costs more than that of any other Protestant denomination. Meanwhile local churches may struggle for funds. Pastors named to denominational positions beyond the local congregation may achieve a virtual sinecure in administrative posts, some of which have few defined duties. Members' appeals for the denomination to simplify its structure have generally been poorly received, resisted by leaders in administrative posts, and others hesitant to change established tradition.
An estimated 75% of Adventists support items relating to the "cohesiveness of organization" of the church, according to a 2002 worldwide survey of local church leaders. This statistic is composed of the following four individual items:
- Question "39. Members have a responsibility to give 10% tithe to the local conference and additional offerings as able" – an estimated 81% agree
- "40. The Adventist church financial structure is a fair and proper way to support the world work of the church" – 79%
- "41. The Adventist world church organization was inspired by God" – 87%
- "43. Different world divisions should be allowed to have different church standards in order to meet differing needs" – 50%
William G. Johnsson has forecasted future changes in the church, including a decreased role of structures and formal leaders in favor of initiatives by ordinary church members. He also argues that maintaining certain church institutions (like schools, hospitals, publishing houses, and health food factories) may in some cases not be worth the resources spent.
- "Three Strategic Issues: A World Survey", p7,8. Presented to the General Conference Annual Council on 7 October 2002. Accessed 2008-04-24
- "Use of the Church Name". Seventh-day Adventist Church. Archived from the original on 2007-01-10. Retrieved 2007-01-11.
- Proposals for Structural Change by Harold Lee
- "The Case for an Independent North American Division" by Raymond Cottrell. Spectrum. Old url:
- "What the General Conference Has Taught Me About Grace" by Clifford Goldstein, blog on the Adventist Today website, 25 July 2008. He discusses the GC specifically, not necessarily the entire structure
- "Three Strategic Issues: A World Survey". General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2002. See pages 20 and 29 especially
- William G. Johnsson, "Four Big Questions". Adventist Review 183 (May 25, 2006), p8–13
- Adventist Yearbook The Official Organizational Directory
- "Seventh-day Adventist Polity: Its Historical Development" by Andrew G. Mustard, from the Biblical Research Institute website
- "Organizational Restructuring" blog by Jeff Crocombe, October 31, 2006
- Spectrum issue 8:4 (August 1977) articles on publishing houses and a proposal for church tribunals
- Articles about Church polity, Administration, and Organization (more pertinent to personal organization) as cataloged in the Seventh-day Adventist Periodical Index (SDAPI)
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